History (HS)

HS 111. The Rise of the West.3 Credits.

Beginning with the origins of Western civilizations in the ancient Near East, students examine the development of Western culture and society from its beginnings through the 16th century, with emphasis on the nature and values of three successive polities: the classical world of Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, and the origins of the modern world in the Renaissance/Reformation. Consideration is given to the idea of "the West" and its interaction with and contact with non-Western cultures and peoples.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 112. The West in the World.3 Credits.

Beginning with the emergence of the modern state in the 16th century, students examine the social, political, economic and cultural developments of Western civilization and its interaction with the rest of the world. Emphasis is on the growth of science and technology in the 17th century, the emergence of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, the age of industrialization, nationalism and imperialism, social upheaval in the 19th century, the domination of the West over the worlds and challenges to that domination during the 20th century.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 122. Modern World History.3 Credits.

This course examines key developments in world history beginning in roughly 1300 with the rise of the Turco-Mongol Empires and ending with the nationalist and independence movements of the 20th century. Students examine and analyze major events that occurred in the non-Western world. Special attention is paid to South Asia, East Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Students gain a better understanding of the history and culture of these regions, as well as how the non-Western world has impacted the global community, both past and present.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

HS 131. U.S. History to 1877.3 Credits.

This course traces the formation and expansion of the American nation from Colonial settlement through Reconstruction using selected episodes. Themes explored include the development of a national identity, models of citizenship, the role of government, and divisions based upon gender, ethnicity, race and class.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 132. U.S. History Since Reconstruction.3 Credits.

This course explores the evolution of the American people and their nation through the major political, social and economic changes of the late 19th century to the present. Key themes include changing expectations of governance, the quest to achieve the full promise of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. ascent to global hegemony.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 200. Special Topics in History.3 Credits.

This course includes readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 201. Historical Writing.3 Credits.

The practice of history is founded on the ability to write clearly. In this intensive writing seminar, students are introduced to the fundamentals of historical writing, including the basics of grammar and sentence structure, the construction of good paragraphs and the crafting of a historical narrative. Since writing and thinking are intimately linked, students also practice the art of historical thinking, including the development of historical arguments, the critical use of historical sources and the appropriate use of historical documentation using the Chicago Manual of Style. Majors only.

Offered: As needed

HS 208. Twentieth-Century World History.3 Credits.

This course covers the history of the world since the 19th century focusing on the experiences and perspectives of the non-Western world. Students study the rise of nationalism, the disintegration of empires, and the growth of communal and ethnic strife across the globe in the 20th century.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

HS 209. Twentieth-Century Europe.3 Credits.

Events in Europe during the 20th century radically transformed the world. The century began, and perhaps ended, in periods of vibrant intellectual, social and cultural development and optimism. In between these eras, however, Europe was at the center of the two bloodiest wars humanity has ever known and the rise of brutal totalitarian states. Students examine the complex cross currents in European society during the period roughly from the 1890s to the present, focusing on the political, social, intellectual and economic developments in European society that helped shape this turbulent century. Students also learn about the impact of non-European peoples, particularly those of Africa and Asia, on internal European developments.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 210. Contemporary America.3 Credits.

This survey of American history from 1945 to the present focuses on both social and political matters. Students study topics including the McCarthy era and the nuclear age, the civil and women's rights movements, Nixon and the Watergate crisis, gay liberation, the Reagan revolution and end of the Cold War, and the era of American global dominance and its challenges. Particular attention is given to the impact of the diverse cultures and peoples that have emerged in contemporary American society.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 210H. Honors Contemporary America.3 Credits.

This survey of American history from 1945 to the present focuses on both domestic and foreign policy matters including the Cold War, the McCarthy era, the civil rights movement, the "great society," Vietnam, Nixon and the Watergate crisis.

Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 211. Popular Culture in American History.3 Credits.

This course focuses on an interpretation of American history through popular culture. Samples of popular culture materials in various historical periods are examined with special attention to music, film, television and sports.

Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 213. The Roman World.3 Credits.

This course examines the historical evolution of Rome which, through its laws, language, literature and institutions, has strongly influenced the modern world. How did the Romans win their Empire? What was the character of these people? And what was the essence of the Roman achievement?

Offered: Every Third Year, Fall
UC: Humanities

HS 214. Ancient Greece: Heroes, Soldiers and Philosophers.3 Credits.

The historical and archeological construct known as "ancient Greece" dates back to at least the third millennium BCE and stretches geographically from modern day Turkey (what the Greeks called Ionia) to Sicily and the Italian peninsula (what the Romans called Magna Graeca). In this course, students focus primarily on that part of Greek history that runs from the 8th century renaissance (circa 750 BCE) to the death of the Macedonian conqueror Alexander (in 323 BCE). The course emphasizes primary literary sources (such as Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides and Euripides) and challenges students to use primary sources as the basis for historical interpretations of the political, social and cultural institutions of ancient Greece.

Offered: Every Third Year, Fall
UC: Humanities

HS 215. American Business History.3 Credits.

Students examine American business history from the mercantile era to the decline of laissez faire, with particular attention to New England. Topics include America as a developing economy: trade, commerce and the transportation revolution; the Industrial Revolution and the American system of manufacture; the managerial revolution and the growth of labor unrest; Progressivism, the cult of efficiency, and the decline of laissez faire.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 219. Colonial America and the Atlantic World.3 Credits.

In this course, students examine the history of Colonial America within the context of the Atlantic World. They expand their knowledge beyond the well-known narrative of the original 13 British colonies that developed into the United States of America and gain an appreciation for the complexity and diversity that characterized life on this continent. Students learn about various pre-Columbian civilizations. Then, they explore the colonies that Europeans established on indigenous lands and the wars that they fought to maintain and expand their empires. Students end the course by analyzing the Revolutionary War and the establishment of our nation. Throughout the course, students learn the perspectives of the Native Americans, Europeans and Africans who lived during this remarkable period.

Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 220. American Environmental History.3 Credits.

This course examines American society's interaction with nature since the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century. Students consider the intentions and values that guided the use of America's natural resources and the transformation of its landscape. While this historical legacy is most apparent in America's agricultural, industrial and conservation activities, it has been equally profound in the rise of America's environmental movement, tourism, recreation, ecological research and global environmental awareness. Since we are located in the New England/Mid-Atlantic region, this course occasionally departs from the broad survey of American environmental history and treats issues that are particularly germane to the region.

Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 227. Russian Cultural and Intellectual History.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to changing concepts of authority and the role of reason in the ordering of social and cultural values, the cultural mission of Russian Orthodoxy, the growth of a secular cultural elite, and the modern struggle to define individual and community and values in literature. This course includes readings in Russian thought and literature.

Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 228. Twentieth-Century Russia.3 Credits.

This course considers Russian politics, society and culture in the 20th century, the Soviets in world affairs, and changing American views of the former Soviet Union.

Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 229. Irish History.3 Credits.

This examination of Irish history from the pre-Christian Celtic era to modern times focuses on the changing character of Irish culture reflected in literary, political and religious documents. Special consideration is given to the origins of modern political and sectarian conflicts through a consideration of the history of Anglo-Irish relations, particularly the ramifications of the Tudor conquest, the Great Hunger and the rise of Irish nationalism.

Offered: Every year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 230. The Rise of Modern Science.3 Credits.

In this course students explore the development of modern science since Copernicus and the impact that science has had on our world in the past four centuries. Students examine the major historical developments in astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine over the past 400 years. They also explore the complex interaction of science with society especially its contact with issues in religion, politics and gender. No specific background in science in required.

Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 231. The World of Tudor/Stuart Britain.3 Credits.

This course explores early modern Britain from the establishment of the Tudor monarchy in 1485 until the end of the Stuart kings with the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Areas of focus include: Henry VIII, the Reformation, Elizabeth I, Shakespeare's London, Scotland's witch trials, and the English Civil War. Through exposure to and examination of primary source documents and historical interpretations, students come to see how the history of early modern Britain holds foundations for the modern world.

Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 232. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire.3 Credits.

This course analyzes the expansion, consolidation, workings and eventual disintegration of the British Empire from the 17th century until its collapse in the 20th century. It touches on the colonial experiences of North America, the West Indies, India, China, the Middle East, Australia, Ireland and Africa. Students examine the emergence of nationalism in the colonized regions. Special emphasis is placed on how the major colonies were affected by the international imperial context, as well as the contributions that subject peoples and cultures made to colonial history and the trajectory of the empire.

Offered: Every other year, Fall
UC: Humanities

HS 235. Blood and Revolution in China/ Asian Studies.3 Credits.

This course offers a general survey of modern Chinese history. We begin with the height of the Qing Dynasty in the eighteenth century and end with the Tiananmen Square Incident in 1989. As we explore this time period, learnin about cosplaying emperors, tiger hunts, the global drug trade, Christian rebels, Japanese imperialists, scheming warlords, female martial artists and impassioned revolutionaries. Their stories illuminate how China transformed itself from an empire to a nation.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 236. Japan's Modern Empire/Asian Studies.3 Credits.

This course offers a general survey of modern Japanese history. We begin with the Meiji Restoration of the 19th century and end with the death of Emperor Hirohito in 1989. Throughout the semester we explore the causes and impact of Japan's rise as a modern empire. We also discuss the legacy of Japanese empire through an exploration of contemporary Japanese pop culture.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 241. African-American Experiences to Reconstruction.3 Credits.

This course examines the history of the United States by looking at African-American experiences up to the end of the 19th century. Using a wide array of primary materials from songs to autobiographies to speeches, in print and audiovisual forms, students explore how people of African descent conceptualized and constructed their identities and navigated their struggles against inequalities. A central theme is that people of African descent living in America created themselves under circumstances of inhumanity, exploitation and oppression.

Offered: Every Third Year, Fall
UC: Humanities

HS 242. African-American Experience Since Reconstruction.3 Credits.

Although emancipation and reconstruction amendments ended a particular set of oppression and exploitation, the legal conferral of citizenship for African Americans neither ended institutional racism nor secured the redistribution of resources that had hitherto entrenched inequalities, prejudices and the denial of opportunities to black people. In this course, students examine how African Americans cultivated, expressed and debated the possibilities of, and alternatives to, equal inclusion and participation in American democracy and society in the last three decades of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century.

Offered: Every Third Year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 254. Colonial Latin America.3 Credits.

This course offers an introduction and examination of the history of Latin America and its people from Pre-Columbian times through independence. The course focuses on both the indigenous and European peoples and the many consequences of their interactions. Some areas of examination include European expansion and conquest, the impact on and reactions of indigenous populations, the formation of a colonial society, issues of race, ethnicity, class and gender, and the establishment of economic and political structures.

Offered: Every other year, All
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

HS 270. The East Is Red": Communism in Asia.3 Credits.

This course offers an introduction to the theory and practice of communism in Asia. Though the influence of communism on South Asia is discussed, most course readings cover the countries of East and Southeast Asia, namely North Korea, China, Vietnam and Cambodia. Students are exposed to the theoretical writings of important figures in Asian communist history from Karl Marx to Xi Jinping. Students also learn about the social and political impact of communist movements and Marxist theory in the Asian region.

Offered: Every other year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 271. Monks, Kings and Rebels: Mainland Southeast Asia.3 Credits.

This course offers a general survey of the history of Mainland Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam. We begin with the introduction of Buddhism and end with the fall of the Khmer Rouge. Emphasis is placed on the Angkor Wat, colonial and Vietnam War periods.

Offered: Every other year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 272. Pirates and Matriarchs: Island Southeast Asia.3 Credits.

This course offers a general survey of the history of Island Southeast Asia, including countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia. We begin with the introduction of Islam and end with a discussion of contemporary China's growing influence in the South China Sea. Some topics for discussion include the matriarchal Muslim cultures of Indonesia and the American colonization of the Philippines.

Offered: Every other year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 273. African History and Culture.3 Credits.

This course presents an introduction to traditional African culture and the different patterns of historical development south of the Sahara. Topics include the role of trade in the rise of Sudanic and East Coast civilizations, diversity of political European presence before and after the partition of Africa, and contemporary trends since independence.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 274. History of India.3 Credits.

This course examines the history of the South Asian subcontinent from the ancient to the modern period. Students examine broad outlines of historical developments in the ancient and medieval periods, and conduct a more in-depth study of the modern period, beginning with the establishment of the Mughal Empire in approximately 1526. The course presents key historiographical debates on the history of the subcontinent, such as early Islamic invasions, reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire, the foundations of British rule, Hindu-Muslims relations, and the impact of the Raj on social and familial relations.

Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 300. Special Topics in American History.3 Credits.

This course focuses on readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 301. Special Topics II - European History.3 Credits.

This course focuses on readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.

HS 302. Special Topics III: World History.3 Credits.

This course focuses on readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 200 level history course.
Offered: Every year, Fall

HS 303. Historiography.3 Credits.

This advanced seminar is intended for majors and other students interested in deepening their knowledge of the techniques of reading, writing, researching and interpreting history. Students get a broad introduction to the concept of historiography and consider the ways in which thinking about the past has changed over time.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 305. Vietnam (COM 305).3 Credits.

This course presents a study of the Vietnam Era and draws conclusions about policy for the future. Media coverage of the war and its effect on both national policy and political change are emphasized.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course or MSS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 306. Frederick Douglass and Ireland.3 Credits.

In August 1845, Frederick Douglass, then a 27-year-old fugitive slave, arrived in Dublin, the capital of Ireland. He intended to visit for only four days, to oversee the re-publication of his autobiographical, Narrative, but he stayed in the country for four months. When he left, he described his time there as being "transformative." Throughout the remainder of his long life, Douglass would refer to how Ireland - its colonial status, its religious struggles, its endemic poverty - had helped to shape his political philosophies. This course explores why Ireland played such an important part in his political and intellectual development.

Prerequisites: Take IRST 101 or one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed

HS 307. The Holocaust.3 Credits.

Through an examination of historical texts, literature and film, this course examines the systematic destruction of 10 million human beings at the hands of the Third Reich.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course or MSS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 312. The Age of Pericles.3 Credits.

This course examines the history and culture of Athens within the context of the large world of Greece and its neighbors across the Mediterranean world during the tumultuous 5th century.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course or PL 101.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

HS 317. The European Reformation.3 Credits.

This course explores Western Christendom from the late Middle Ages through the 17th century during the Age of Reformation. The central focus of the course is religion, but since the Reformation did not occur in isolation, it addresses a variety of themes in the study of early modern Europe. The aim of this course is to understand the major figures, movements and ideas that contributed to the division of Western Christendom into numerous confessional communities.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 321. European History, 1914-1945.3 Credits.

This course presents a study of World War I and its economic, social, political and ideological consequences. The collapse of the Versailles settlement and interwar period is considered. World War II is covered, as are diplomatic and military consequences for the Cold War era.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, All

HS 322. History of World War I.3 Credits.

The origins of World War I and the problems of mass mobilization, war aims, weaponry and political attitudes are analyzed. The major military encounters, the war as it affected non-Europeans and the diplomacy of neutrality are discussed. Emphasis is on the peace treaties and the repercussions.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 323. World War II.3 Credits.

This in-depth study of the diplomatic, political and military aspects of World War II, 1939-1945, presents the background of the war in Europe and East Asia and the course of events in all major theaters of operations. Wartime conferences and long-term outcomes are discussed.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 325. History of England: 1688 to the Present.3 Credits.

The history of the English people from the "glorious revolution" to the present is explored. Primary focus is on the major political, constitutional, religious, economic and social developments that have contributed to the making of modern Britain. Themes include: the rise of the middle class, the expanding powers of Parliament, the Industrial Revolution and the acquisition and loss of empire.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 326. Witches and Werewolves in the Early Modern World (WS 326).3 Credits.

This course explores the general belief in witchcraft and other supernatural creatures in the larger context of religion and culture in the early modern world. Participants examine how belief in the supernatural led to a widespread fear and persecution of individuals deemed witches or other consorts of the devil. Using the groundbreaking work of historians, and the primary documents of the period, this course examines the origins and processes of the witch trials. Since approximately 75 percent of those in Europe accused of witchcraft were women, the course examines how gender, misogyny and scapegoating shaped the persecution and prosecution of the more vulnerable members of premodern society. More broadly, the class examines how Christianity both affirmed and condemned these beliefs and practices and how people used "superstition" to make sense of the world around them.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

HS 327. Islamic Societies and Cultures to 1300.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the history of the Islamic peoples. The course attempts to impart an understanding of the identity, character and accomplishments of Arabic-speaking world. Particular emphasis is on the life of Muhammad, and on the political, economic, social and cultural achievements of the medieval Islamic empire.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 330. History of Western Medicine.3 Credits.

This course examines the development of the Western medical tradition from its origins in the ancient Near East to modern times. The course emphasizes an understanding of medical theory and practice in relation to larger social, intellectual and scientific developments in the West. Topics include Hippocratic and Galenic medicine, medieval medical theory and practice, the emergence of new medical ideas in the Renaissance, and the development of modern scientific medicine.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 332. History of India.3 Credits.

Students examine the history of the South Asian subcontinent between 1500 and 1950, roughly. Beginning with the establishment of the Mughal Empire in approximately 1526, students critically discuss the shift from "native" empire to British rule in the 1800s, as well as look at the various challenges to British rule and the Indian independence movement of the 20th century and its effects. Along the way, students analyze key historiographical debates on the history of the subcontinent, such as the reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire, the foundations of British rule, Hindu-Muslims relations, and the impact of the Raj on social and familial relations. Students should expect to attend lecture regularly, participate in weekly class discussions, as well as demonstrate mastery over the material in written assignments.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 333. The Middle East, 1300-1919; Critical Issues.3 Credits.

Students analyze the economic, cultural and political developments in the Middle East between 1300 and 1919, beginning with the rise of the Ottoman Empire in roughly 1300 through the gradual shift from Ottoman to European influence in the 19th century. Students also discuss the rise of nationalism and the effect of World War I on the political map of the Middle East, paying close attention to events in Saudi Arabia and modern-day Israel. Emphasis is placed on certain "critical issues" in the study of the Middle East, such as the status of women, terrorism and the place of Islam in Middle Eastern history. Participants take a close look at both contemporary viewpoints and historiographical debates surrounding these issues. Students should expect to attend lecture regularly, participate in weekly class discussions, as well as demonstrate mastery over the material in written assignments.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 341. The American Revolution.3 Credits.

Through lectures and discussions based on source and secondary readings, this course considers American history from 1763 to 1787, the pre-Revolutionary period, military, political and theoretical aspects of the Revolution, the Confederation, and the writing of the Constitution. Emphasis is on the political thought that culminated in the creation of the Constitution.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 344. Civil War and Reconstruction.3 Credits.

The economic, social and political history of the United States in the mid-19th century is examined with emphasis upon the Civil War. Also explored are long-range and immediate causes for Southern secession, the military, naval and diplomatic conflict; domestic developments North and South, 1861-65; postwar problems and the history of Reconstruction, 1865-77.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 349. American Maritime History.3 Credits.

This course examines America's historic activities on the world's oceans, and on the bays, rivers and Great Lakes that are within its national boundaries. Students consider the economic, cultural, political and naval uses of these bodies of water from the 16th century to the present. Within this broad framework, this course considers how Americans used marine and freshwater environments to conduct trade, build communities, engage in war and diplomacy, use nature's bounty and participate in recreational activities. These themes illuminate the value Americans placed on maritime affairs, and provide insight into the American mariner's world, the American maritime community alongshore and the rippling effects of maritime activity throughout wider American society.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 350. Introduction to Public History.3 Credits.

This course provides an introduction to the field of public history. There are a variety of opinions on what constitutes public history, but generally it is considered to be the presentation of history to broad audiences outside the traditional classroom setting. The practice and presentation of history along these lines usually takes the form of museum exhibition, historic preservation, cultural/historic resource management, public programming, documentary film and oral history, but it is hardly limited to these areas. This course aims to introduce students to these exciting possibilities, and to appreciate the ever-widening scope of the public historian in the new media age.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 391. Colonizing the Body.4 Credits.

This course takes an in-depth look at the ways in which empire and imperial policies reshaped and reformulated the body of the colonized subject, setting up social categories of difference that corresponded neatly to European imperial notions of biological difference. Using India as a case study, it examines how Indian bodies were "scientifically" classified, categorized and redefined to underscore and perpetuate European political dominance. The course highlights imperial policies that buttressed certain privileged notions of racial, gendered, economic/occupational and anatomical difference.

Offered: Every year, Fall

HS 394. Doctors, Disease and Death in the Western World.4 Credits.

In this course, students learn about the complex and varied history of health, healing, disease and death in the Western world from the time of the ancient Egyptians to modern day. This course is thematic in its focus. Students study various aspects of the history of medicine and through that study come to a better understanding of the biological, social, intellectual, cultural and institutional contexts in which the process of living and dying has been constructed in the Western experience.

Offered: Every year, Spring

HS 399. Independent Study in History.3 Credits.

Individual study of special area including internships. By agreement of the student and with prior permission of the department chairperson, the student may undertake directed readings with discussion, examination and reports as arranged by the instructor in an area of the student's interest not normally offered through scheduled courses. Available to history majors or other equally qualified students.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 408. Seminars in History.3 Credits.

Seminars are taught by members of the department in areas of their special competence. Topics are selected in consultation with juniors in the major. Emphasis is on organization and presentation of research. Open to history majors or other qualified students in their second-semester or senior year by permission of department and instructor.

Prerequisites: Take HS 303.
Offered: Every year, All