School of Law
The School of Law combines rigorous academics, personalized attention, and a practice-focused curriculum to enable every student to develop the core legal skills that are fundamental to a successful and rewarding legal career. The law school has several legal clinics and numerous externship opportunities through which students acquire client-based legal experience and do pro bono work in the community, supervised by practicing attorneys. Students can further refine their critical problem-solving skills in more than a dozen classroom-based simulation courses.
The School of Law offers full-time, part-time, and flex-time programs leading to the JD degree, as well as joint JD/MBA, JD/MSW, and JD/MELP (Master of Environmental Law and Policy) degrees. Students may also choose to concentrate in one or more of several subject matter areas: Civil Advocacy and Dispute Resolution, Criminal Law and Advocacy, Family Law, Health Law, Intellectual Property, International Law and Policy, Tax Law, and Workplace Law.
The student experience at the School of Law is enhanced through many other activities, including three student-edited scholarly journals – the Law Review, the Health Law Journal, and the Probate Law Journal; intramural and interschool competitions sponsored by the Moot Court Society, the Mock Trial Society, and the Society for Dispute Resolution; and a range of student organizations, including affinity bar organizations such as the Black Law Students Association, the Women’s Law Society, the Latin American Law Association, and Outlaws, our LGBTQA organization. The law school’s International Human Rights Law Society travels to Nicaragua each year and presents a conference in collaboration with a Nicaraguan law school, and a course in International Human Rights and Transitional Justice gives students the opportunity to make presentations at the annual Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates.
Quinnipiac’s Accelerated Dual-Degree Bachelor’s/JD (3+3) program offers qualified freshmen and sophomores the opportunity to complete both their BA or BS degree and the JD degree in six years instead of seven. Visit the Pre-Law section of this Catalog for program details.
At Quinnipiac University School of Law, we seek to imbue our students with the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for competent and ethical service in the legal profession. Accordingly, we strive — through rigorous classroom instruction and practical training in lawyering skills — to educate attorneys who prepare carefully, think independently and creatively, reason critically, act with compassion and respect for others, and express themselves cogently, both orally and in writing. We also strive to inspire our students to embrace the professional ethic of service and to appreciate the value of “practical wisdom.” To this end, we work with our students to help them develop sound judgment and personal approaches that will help them to succeed in a changing world and to serve effectively as advocates, problem-solvers and counselors. We also demonstrate our own commitment to professionalism and to the advancement of knowledge and justice, by engaging in scholarship that facilitates the understanding and just solution of complex problems and by providing service to governmental and public interest agencies and to the community at large. In addition, recognizing the important pedagogical benefits realized when an educational community is meaningfully diverse — and conscious of the role that law schools must play in helping diversify the legal profession — we strive to maintain meaningful diversity in our student body and in our faculty and staff.
- Civil Advocacy and Dispute Resolution
- Criminal Law and Advocacy
- Family Law
- Health Law
- International Law and Policy
- Intellectual Property
- Workplace Law
Master of Laws
Academic rules and regulations are subject to change by decision of the faculty at any time. The Student Conduct Code and the Honor Code are separate documents, included in the bound copy of the Academic Catalog.
- I. Requirements for Graduation
- II. Grades, Grading, and Examinations
- III. Course Loads
- IV. Continuance in Residence; Review for Academic Deficiency
- V. Withdrawal from a Course
- VI. Attendance, Preparation, and Participation Policy
- VII. Good Standing
I. Requirements for Graduation
A. In General
To receive the JD degree, a student must meet all of the following requirements:
1. Successfully complete all required courses, the core elective requirement, the Professional Skills Requirement (for students matriculating before Fall 2016 or the Experiential Learning Requirement (for students matriculating Fall 2016 or later).
2. Receive credit for 86 credits.
3. Achieve a cumulative grade point average of 2.0.
4. Complete all requirements no sooner than 24 months and, except in extraordinary circumstances, no later than 84 months after a student has commenced law study at this law school or a law school from which this school accepted transfer credit.
5. Satisfactorily complete the Advanced Writing Requirement.
6. Complete all work for the above requirements no later than the last day of examinations of the student’s final semester.
B. Required Courses
Because it is important for all lawyers to share a core of common knowledge and skills, the faculty has prescribed a set of required courses (listed elsewhere in this catalog).
2. Course Sequences, Variances
Required courses must be successfully completed. They must be taken in the prescribed sequence (set forth elsewhere in this catalog) unless the student has petitioned for and been granted a variance prior to registration or prior to a change in registration. A student may, however, take a required course earlier than the prescribed semester without petitioning to do so. Authority to grant or deny such variances rests in the associate dean. Variances are granted in only the most extraordinary of circumstances. A student who has been given permission to postpone an exam in a required course must take the exam the next time the course is offered (excluding the summer term).
3. Successful Completion
A student who has received a failing grade in a required course must retake the course. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will receive a grade of “Pass,” but will retain the previous grade of F as well. The “Pass” will have no numerical value and will not affect the CQPA (Cumulative Quality Point Average). The F will be included in the CQPA. The purpose of the rule is to insure at least minimal competency in all required courses but not to provide opportunities to improve a grade. The writing of a paper for a course in which the student failed an examination is prohibited.
C. Core Electives
In addition to Lawyers’ Professional Responsibility, which remains required for all students, the upper-class curriculum consists of Core Electives and General Electives. The Core Electives are: Administrative Law, Business Organizations, Commercial Law, Evidence, Federal Income Taxation, and Trusts and Estates. General Electives are all electives other than Core Electives.
1. Core Elective Requirement
Every student must take at least four of the Core Electives. One of the four must be either Commercial Law or Federal Income Tax. Students who take both Commercial Law and Federal Income Taxation will be able to use both in satisfying the requirement of four.
2. Sequencing and Registration Priorities
A full-time student must complete at least three of the Core Electives by the end of his or her second year. Moreover, students who are registering for their second year have priority with respect to all of the Core Electives. Thus, a student who takes fewer than six of the Core Electives in his or her second year will be able to register to take the remaining Core Elective(s) as a third-year student only after the completion of registration by students who are registering to take Core Electives in their second year.
A part-time student must complete at least two of the core electives by the end of his or her second year, and the rest of his or her core electives in the third and/or fourth years.
After registration in the fall, the associate dean for academic affairs will determine if there are any students who have not registered for enough Core Electives to complete at least three (for full-time students) or two (for part-time students) by the end of their second academic year. The associate dean will send a warning letter to such students, stating they have one week to register for sufficient Core electives in the spring to total the required number for the year. If they have not done so by the deadline, the associate dean will register them for the number of core electives needed to fulfill the core elective requirement. Courses will be assigned solely in the discretion of the associate dean.
The associate dean’s office is available to answer questions about the requirements and registration priorities.
3. Advice on Course Selection
Although only four of the Core Electives are required, the faculty recommends that students seriously consider taking all six, for the following reasons.
First, the faculty believes that these six courses are among the most important in the upper-class curriculum. Taking all six gives students exposure to a wide variety of legal areas and disciplines. In the past, students who have had summer jobs after their second years have often found that they were better prepared for their assignments than students from law schools with less extensive requirements.
Second, with the exception of Federal Income Taxation, the six courses cover some, though by no means all, of the most difficult material tested on most bar examinations. Taking all five of the other courses does not, of course, guarantee success on any bar examination, nor does taking all six guarantee success in practice. Moreover, different instructors may stress different aspects of the material and even different material in different sections of the courses. Yet students who take all six will thereby enhance their chances of passing a bar examination and will become sensitized to potential tax consequences of transactions and other activities in a wide variety of legal practice areas.
Third, all of the six courses provide foundations for other courses in the curriculum. In combination with the required first-year curriculum, they develop students’ skills in statutory, administrative, and common-law reasoning. They also introduce students to many of the concepts that clients expect lawyers to understand.
Fourth, students’ notions of where their interests lie often change with exposure to new material. In the past, many students who have entered the law school without definite career plans have discovered interests in areas covered in one or more of the six courses. Even students whose plans were definite at the outset have sometimes changed their minds and pursued careers in areas they discovered only when they took one of the six.
D. Advanced Writing Requirement
1. The Requirement
To ensure continued development of those research and writing skills stressed in the first-year Legal Skills Program, each student must write at least four papers after the first year, preferably one each semester. At least one, the “substantial paper,” must be at least 10-15 pages in length with a non-trivial research component. The three others constitute the “short paper” requirement. A student may not begin the advanced writing requirement before completing Legal Skills I and II.
2. Modes of Satisfaction
A student will ordinarily submit a paper as part of the work for a substantive or clinical course. The class schedule published each semester will indicate which courses automatically satisfy either a short paper or substantial paper requirement. Most elective courses that do not automatically satisfy a paper requirement will have a limited number of places for students who wish to write a paper for that course. Procedures for signing up for a paper are published each semester after the close of the add/drop period. The paper must count for at least 25% of the final grade for the course.
Ordinarily a student may not satisfy two paper requirements in the same semester. An exception will be made if a student takes more than one course that automatically satisfies a paper requirement. The Associate Dean may waive the one-paper limitation for good cause.
A member of the Law Review, the Probate Law Journal, or the Health Law Journal may satisfy the substantial paper requirement by preparing a long note or comment that the editorial board determines is of publishable quality. A student may satisfy the substantial paper requirement by submitting an appellate brief prepared for the intramural competition used to select members for the Moot Court Board. To satisfy the paper requirement, the brief must be critiqued and approved by a faculty member, who may require additional work on the paper. The faculty member must transmit the approval to the Registrar.
3. Full-Time Faculty
The courses designated as satisfying the advanced writing requirement shall ordinarily be limited to those taught by full-time faculty. In exceptional circumstances, the Associate Dean may approve the designation of a course taught by a part-time member of the faculty.
4. Duplicative Use
The principal part of any work prepared in satisfaction of any part of the writing requirement will be completed after the date that the topic is approved by the faculty supervisor. Any prior work on the topic, either research or writing, must be fully disclosed to the faculty supervisor prior to the approval of the topic.
E. Limit on Out-of-Class Credits
A law student may elect a maximum of 20 out-of-class credits toward the satisfaction of the 86 semester hours required to receive the JD degree, consisting of up to 10 field-work credits and up to 10 non-classroom credits, as follows:
1. Field-Work Credits
A law student shall be permitted to elect a maximum of ten field-work credits during the student’s residency at the school. Field-work hours, as currently in the curriculum, include the following:
a. all but four of the credit hours elected by a student taking for the first time an in-house clinic taught by a full-time faculty member (Civil Justice Clinic and Tax Clinic),
b. all but two of the credit hours elected by a student taking Civil Justice Clinic after taking Tax Clinic or vice versa, and
c. all but two of the credit hours elected by a student taking Appellate Clinic or other clinic that is not taught by a full-time faculty member, and
d. all but one of the credit hours for Advanced Clinic, and
e. all but one of the credit hours for an externship.
The rules of the various state bar examiners vary in respect to the number of field-work credits an applicant may present. Each student is responsible for making certain that his or her curriculum conforms to the requirements of the state or states to which the student may apply.
2. Non-Classroom Credits
In addition to any field-work credits under the preceding section, a law student shall be permitted to elect a maximum of ten non-classroom credit hours during the student's residency at the school. Non-classroom hours, as currently in the curriculum, include the following: a. all credit hours elected for Moot Court, and b. all credit hours elected for Health Law Journal, Law Review, or Probate Law Journal, and c. all credit hours elected for an Independent Research Project. The rules of the various state bar examiners vary in respect to the number of non-classroom credits an applicant may present. Each student is responsible for making certain that his or her curriculum conforms to the requirements of the state or states to which the student may apply.
3. The following summarizes the limits on out-of-class credits:
Field-Work Credits: 10 credits maximum
Externship (non-seminar work)
Advanced Clinic (non-seminar work)
All but 4 Civil Justice/Tax Clinic credits (if a student takes Civil Justice Clinic and then Tax Clinic (or vice versa), then all but 2 credits of the second clinic would be Field-Work Credits)
Other clinics (non-seminar work)
Non-Classroom Credits: 10 credits maximum
Moot Court (3-credit limit)
Independent Research Project (6-credit limit)
Journal (4-credit limit)
Credits from other parts of University
F. Independent Research Project
The Independent Research Project permits a student to conduct a major research and writing project under the supervision of a full-time member of the Law School faculty. The paper must be at least twenty pages in length, exclusive of footnotes, per credit assigned.
A student who wishes to write an independent research paper must submit to the supervising faculty member a written proposal that demonstrates that he or she has a viable topic for research. The student must register for the course, with the approval of the faculty member, no later than the beginning of the student's next to last semester of school. Prior to registration, the student must present to the Registrar a contract signed by the supervising faculty member. Contracts are available in the Associate Dean’s office.
An Independent Research Project may satisfy the substantial paper component of the Advanced Writing Requirement if the project is for either two or three credits.
The Advanced Writing Requirement provision on Duplicative Use applies to the Independent Research Project.
No student shall register for more than one Independent Research Project in any semester or session, nor more than two Independent Research Projects for all semesters or sessions at the School. No student may complete more than one Independent Research Project with any individual faculty member. A student may enroll in an Independent Research Project during the same semester or session in which the student is enrolled in a clinical program, subject to the rules regarding Limit on Non-Classroom Credits, and provided that the student is enrolled in at least one other School course with regular class meetings. Only full-time law school faculty members may supervise an Independent Research Project. The Associate Dean may waive any of these requirements under exceptional circumstances.
G. Visitor and Credit-Transfer Policy
1. Visitor Policy
Students may by permission of the Associate Dean visit at another law school at any time after completing their second semester, provided that they complete at least two-thirds of their credits toward their degree at the Quinnipiac University School of Law. Such visiting status may be granted when it is determined that an exceptional change in the student's personal circumstances requires the student to relocate for the period of visiting status, or when some exceptional educational opportunity arises. Credits will be accepted for transfer only if the visiting student earns at least a C or its equivalent.
2. Transfer of Credits
This School will grant no more transfer credits for a course taken at another school than the number of credits granted for the course by that school. For students who transfer to this School, no credits are transferred in courses in which the student has earned a grade below C (2.0). The maximum number of credits a student can transfer from another law school is 30. For Quinnipiac students who visit at another law school, see paragraph 1 above. Credits accepted from other schools are transferred with the grade of “Pass.”
3. Required Courses and Core Electives
Except with express written permission of the Associate Dean for reasons of hardship, students may not receive credit for required courses or core electives taken at other law schools. Written permission must be obtained before taking the course elsewhere.
4. Summer Sessions
Except with express written permission of the Associate Dean for reasons of hardship or sound academic reasons, students may count toward graduation no more than six credits earned in summer programs of other law schools. Written permission must be obtained before taking the course elsewhere.
H. Courses Taken in Another University School or College
For good cause shown, the Associate Dean may allow a student to register and earn credit toward the JD for courses taken in another school or college of the University. Law school credit will be pass/fail only, and given only for courses in which the student earns a grade of C (2.0) or better.
II. Grades, Grading, and Examinations
The School records letter grades and attributes to those grades a quality point equivalent based upon a four-point system, as follows:
A .................................... 4.00
A- .................................. 3.67
B+ .................................. 3.33
B .................................... 3.00
B- ................................... 2.67
C+ .................................. 2.33
F ..................................... 0.0 and no credit
The School awards honors to graduates according to the following standards:
3.00 to 3.29 - cum laude
3.30 to 3.59 - magna cum laude
3.60 to 4.00 - summa cum laude
Several courses, including Civil Justice Clinic, Tax Clinic, Appellate Clinic, and Externships, may be graded (at least in part) as Honors, High Pass, Pass, Low Pass, and Fail. Except for Fail, none of these grades has a numerical equivalent; hence they do not affect the student’s Cumulative Quality Point Average. A Fail, however, counts as a 0.0 in calculating the CQPA. Grades for courses taken at other institutions for which credit is given shall be recorded as Pass, subject to the Transfer of Credits policy described in section I.G.2 above.
1. Anonymous Examinations
Except as specified hereunder, grades are based solely on written examinations that are graded anonymously. Approximately one week before examinations each semester, students must obtain from the Registrar their examination number. That number must be used on all examinations in lieu of the student’s name.
2. Extensive Written Work
Some courses involve extensive written work. Such work and such courses need not be graded anonymously. However, written final examinations in such courses are graded anonymously.
3. Clinical Courses
Clinical Courses and other courses involving extensive non-written performance need not be graded on the basis of anonymous examinations.
4. Classroom Performance
The faculty believes that student performance in the classroom is an essential part of the educational process. Faculty members have the authority to evaluate such performance and to raise or lower a student's final grade by one-third of a letter grade, based on such performance. A faculty member who implements this policy must announce it to his or her class beforehand. Failure to adopt such a policy at the beginning of a semester shall not stop the faculty member from doing so thereafter, provided the required notice is given.
5. Attendance and Class Preparation
Excessive student absences in a required course will lead to an administrative withdrawal from the course with a grade of F. (See section VI.A, Attendance Policy, below.)
6. Grade Changes
After submitting grades in a course to the Registrar’s Office, a faculty member has no authority to change a grade except upon satisfying the Associate Dean that the change is due to mathematical or other clerical error or egregious substantive error. No change requested by a student shall be approved unless the student has sought review from the instructor within three weeks after the posting of the grade, or within three weeks of the beginning of the semester immediately following, whichever is later. In no event shall a grade change be made after the last day of the semester next following the semester or session in which the examination was administered.
7. Grades of Incomplete
A student who is given a grade of Incomplete in a course, and has not completed all course requirements by the end of the semester following that in which the Incomplete was given, shall automatically have the Incomplete converted to an F. Exceptions to this rule will be made only in cases of extreme hardship (such as extended illness), on proof of same satisfactory to the Associate Dean.
8. Grading Guidelines
The recommended median grade in required courses (Contracts, Torts, Civil Procedure, Criminal Law, Constitutional Law, Property, and Legal Skills I & II) is C+ or B-. The recommended median grade in core electives (Tax, Business Organizations, Evidence, Administrative Law, Commercial Law, and Trusts and Estates) and in Lawyers’ Professional Responsibility is B- or B. Faculty may deviate from these recommended medians after consulting with the Associate Dean. There are no recommended medians for other courses.
1. Honor Code
The following honor code pledge will be attached to every examination, take-home and in-class. Students must sign the pledge prior to taking the examination.
HONOR CODE PLEDGE
“On my honor, I pledge that I will follow the Honor Code regarding this examination. Specifically, I pledge that I have not given or received, and will not give or receive, prohibited assistance on this examination, and that I will neither work on nor retain this examination after the time allotted has elapsed. I understand that it is my duty to report any conduct that I know constitutes a violation of the Honor Code.”
Signature (please use examination number, not your name):
2. When Taken; Excuses
(a) Examinations must be taken at the time and place specified unless the student is excused by the Associate Dean on account of illness or for other sufficient reason. Where possible, the student shall secure the Associate Dean’s written permission prior to the date of the examination. To preserve anonymity, the student must not notify the instructor. In the event of an emergency that makes prior written approval impractical, the student shall notify the Associate Dean as soon as possible of his or her inability to take the examination at the scheduled time.
(b) A student who becomes ill during an examination and is unable to complete the examination may, in the discretion of the Associate Dean, be permitted to take the examination in the same course the next time it is offered, provided the student has notified the Associate Dean or his delegate before the end of the examination.
(c) A student who has three or more examinations within a 24-hour period may, with the permission of the Associate Dean, postpone one of the exams until later in the examination period.
3. Rescheduling of Examinations
If the Associate Dean has excused a student from taking an examination at the scheduled time, the Associate Dean may, with the concurrence of the instructor, allow the student to take the same examination at a later time. In no event may a student take an examination prior to the scheduled time. Rescheduled exams cannot be typed.
4. Deferred Examinations
If the Associate Dean has excused a student from taking an examination, but the student has not been permitted to take the same examination at a later time under the preceding section, the student will be permitted to take a different examination at a time and place to be determined by the instructor, but in no event later than the end of the examination period in the semester in which the course is next offered.
The School does not permit reexaminations.
D. Class Ranking Policy
1. In general
- 1L Students: Students who attempted the full-time course load of 30 credits during the academic year are ranked together as full-time students. Students who attempted fewer than 30 credits are ranked together as part-time students.
- 2L Students: Full-time and part-time are ranked together in one 2L ranking.
- 3L and 4L Students: Full-time and part-time are ranked together in one 3L/4L ranking.
2. For determining eligibility for law journals
- Selection of candidates for the Law Review, Probate, and Health Law Journals will take place twice a year, after the fall and the spring semesters. The eligible pool of students shall include those students who at the selection point have attained at least 23 credits as of the conclusion of the immediately preceding semester.
- At each selection point:
- Students in the top 7% of the eligible pool of students will be invited to walk on to the journal of their choice.
- Students in the next 8% of the eligible pool of students will be invited to walk on to their choice of either the Health Law Journal or the Probate Law Journal.
- Students in the top 50% of the eligible pool of students will be eligible to be selected to join the Law Review through the write-on competition.
- Any student in the eligible pool of students who has attained a cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher at the selection point will be eligible to be selected to join the Health Law Journal or the Probate Law Journal through the write-on competition. However, in order to be selected to join either of these Journals, a student who is not in the top 50% of the eligible pool of students shall be required to meet a heightened standard in the write-on competition.
III. Course Loads
A. Full-Time Distinguished from Part-Time
1. Fall and Spring Semesters
A full-time student for American Bar Association purposes is one who enrolls in at least 13 credits per semester. The normal course load for full-time students, however, is 13-15 credits. A part-time student is one who enrolls in 8-12 credits per semester. Written permission of the Associate Dean is required to deviate from these norms.
2. Summer Session
No student may register for more than eight credits in a Quinnipiac summer session. A part-time student (one who is employed for more than 20 hours per week) may not register for more than six credits in a summer session. (See sections I.G.3 and I.G.4 above regarding summer credits taken at other institutions.)
B. Transfer between Day and Evening Programs
Evening students may take day courses, and full-time day students may take evening courses only on a space available basis.
C. Outside Employment
A full-time student must devote substantially all of his or her working hours to the study of law. For purposes of this rule, a full-time student is one who is enrolled for 13 or more credits. A student may not work in excess of 20 hours per week while attending school on a full-time basis. This restriction applies during the summer in the same manner as during the normal year if the student is enrolled for a summer session.
D. Maximum Number of Credits per Semester
Pursuant to ABA requirements, a student may enroll for no more than 17 credits in a semester and no more than eight credits in a summer session. The law school has no authority to waive this rule.
IV. Continuance in Residence; Review for Academic Deficiency
A. Academic Deficiency; Minimum CQPA
Each student will be reviewed for academic deficiency at the end of every academic year. A student must maintain a minimum overall Cumulative Quality Point Average (CQPA) of l.80 at the end of a year in which the student has attempted 17 or more credits, l.90 at the end of a year in which the student has attempted 36 or more credits, and 2.00 at the end of a year and every year thereafter in which the student has attempted 54 or more credits.
2. Transfer Students
A student who transfers here from another law school must maintain a 1.9 CQPA in all courses taken here by the end of his or her second semester here (excluding summer school), and a 2.0 by the end of the second year and every year thereafter.
3. Discounting of Course with Most Detrimental Grade
If a student has not maintained the appropriate minimum CQPA, a second calculation will be performed. Removing from consideration the student's most detrimental grade, the student must have attained a 2.2 average in all remaining courses. The most detrimental grade is the one that most adversely affects the student’s CQPA. This procedure of discounting the most detrimental grade will be repeated each semester, if necessary, so long as the student maintains a 2.2 CQPA in all other courses from the time he or she entered law school.
Any student falling below the required minimum CQPA will be dismissed automatically.
1. If the student has completed only two part-time or full-time semesters, the dismissal is final and there is no right of petition or appeal.
2. If the student has completed three or more semesters, the dismissal is final, with no right of petition or appeal, unless the student is within .05 of the minimum CQPA required to remain in residence. A student who is within .05 of the minimum CQPA may appeal the dismissal to the Academic Status Committee. The appeal should be addressed to the Chair of the Academic Status Committee, in care of the Associate Dean, and must be postmarked no later than fourteen days after receipt of a letter from the Associate Dean notifying the student of his or her dismissal. If the student files an appeal, the dismissal will not become final until the Committee has reviewed the case and denied the appeal. A student may apply for a leave of absence during the semester in which an appeal is pending before the Committee. (See IV.C.) A student is allowed only one such appeal during the student's entire time at the School. If the Committee grants the appeal and allows the student to remain in residence, the student will be reviewed at the end of the academic year and must have brought the CQPA up to the minimum required to remain in residence as of the later semester.
3. A student who has been academically dismissed after the second year or later may petition the Academic Status Committee for reinstatement. The Committee may reinstate a student upon an affirmative showing that the student possesses the requisite ability, that there is a high probability that the student will successfully complete the course of study, and that the prior disqualification does not indicate a lack of capacity to complete the course of study. A student reinstated under this rule will lose all credit for the academic year in which the CQPA fell below the required level. The Committee may impose such conditions as it deems appropriate. The decisions of the Committee are final and not subject to appeal to the faculty as a whole.
4. No course, including summer courses, taken after a semester in which a student was dismissed automatically may count toward the student's CQPA. Even if the later course were to bring the CQPA above the average required to remain in residence, the student will be dismissed from the school and withdrawn from the later course(s) with a 100% tuition refund.
C. Leaves of Absence
Leaves of absence will be granted liberally by the Associate Dean to students who believe that they have problems that might interfere with academic performance.
V. Withdrawal from a Course
A. Written Permission of Associate Dean; When Required
A student may withdraw from a course only with the prior written permission of the Associate Dean in the following circumstances:
1. Withdrawal is from a required course, or
2. Withdrawal from the course would reduce the student’s course load below the minimum required (see section III, Course Loads, above), or
3. Withdrawal is from a course in which the student missed more than 20% of the class hours scheduled in the course.
B. Instructor’s Permission; When Required
A student may withdraw from a course only with the permission of the instructor in the following circumstances:
1. In a course in which students are assigned substantial presentations, a student may withdraw within two weeks of his or her assigned presentation only with the written permission of both the instructor and the Associate Dean.
2. In a clinical course, after the third week of the course a student may withdraw only with the permission of the instructor.
C. Withdrawal as of Right
In all other circumstances a student is entitled to withdraw from a course at any time during the first week of classes by using Student Planning. After the first week, a student must email the Registrar. A student who has not followed this procedure has not withdrawn from a course.
VI. Attendance, Preparation, and Participation Policy
A. Statement of Law School Policy
The faculty believes that class attendance, preparation, and participation are critical elements of the educational process.
B. General Attendance Requirement
An instructor may withdraw a student who misses 20% of the class hours in any course. A student so withdrawn from a required course will also receive a grade of F in that course. For purposes of this rule, the term “required course” does not include the courses listed as Core Electives in Rule I.C. In making the decision to withdraw a student, the instructor may consider such factors as the number of absences and the legitimacy of the reasons for them. In calculating the number of absences, an instructor may not take into account absences from classes held at times other than in the published course schedule. The instructor may deem the failure to sign an attendance sheet as conclusive evidence of a student’s absence if the instructor has notified students of this policy in writing no later than the first class.
C. Additional Rules for Clinical Courses
Students who are enrolled in clinics must appear personally on the first day of the semester or as may be required by the clinic faculty. Absences from clinic courses will be permitted only for illness and pressing personal matters (bereavement, illness in the family, placement interviews, legal matters, inter-law school competitions), and such absences must be made up. The faculty member supervising the clinic shall have the discretion to decide whether the circumstances justify an absence and when the absence shall be made up.
An instructor who withdraws a student shall notify the Associate Dean of the withdrawal no later than one week after the last class. The Associate Dean shall notify the student.
E. Constructive Absences
An instructor may mark absent a student who is inadequately prepared for class or refuses to participate when required to do so, whether or not the instructor requires the student to leave the classroom. The instructor must immediately advise the student that he or she has been marked absent.
1. A student withdrawn from a course may petition the Academic Status Committee for reinstatement. If a student files such a petition, the withdrawal will not become final until the Committee has reviewed the case and denied the petition. Attendance, preparation, and participation requirements will remain in effect during the pendency of the petition. The Committee may reinstate a student in the course if, after giving appropriate deference to the instructor’s determination, the Committee finds that the instructor’s decision was not reasonable. In making its determination, the Committee may consider any additional failures by the student in complying with the attendance, preparation, and participation requirements that occur after the initial withdrawal and while the appeal is pending. In the event that the Committee decides to grant the petition, it may impose such conditions upon reinstatement as it deems appropriate.
Upon request by the losing party, the Committee shall issue a written statement explaining the basis for its ruling.
2. The Committee’s decision is final. Neither party may appeal the decision to the faculty. The Committee may refer any matter to the faculty for review.
VII. Good Standing
To be in good standing a student must have the minimum CQPA required under section IV.A.1 above and be current in his or her financial obligations to the law school.
A student may withdraw from one or more courses during the add/drop period by doing so on Student Planning. After the add/drop period, a student must obtain and file a drop form at the associate dean and Registrar’s Office. A student who wishes to withdraw completely from the School of Law must submit a statement to that effect to the associate dean.
Refunds are based on Quinnipiac University Policy and the return of unearned Title IV funds as required by the U.S. Department of Education.
For purposes of clarification and for reference, the policies described below have been categorized into two groups:
- Quinnipiac University Policy
- Return of Unearned Title IV Funds — Federal Policy
Federal guidelines require that any unearned Title IV funds be returned to the program(s) that provided the aid. The required order of returning refunds is as follows: Title IV, HEA programs, other federal and state programs, university grants, private or institutional financial assistance and finally to the student. Examples of refund calculations are available upon request.
Quinnipiac University School of Law Refund Policy
The policy described below gives consideration to two groups:
- prior to the start of classes and
- after the start of classes
Refund Policies, Prior to the Start of Classes
A new incoming student who has rendered either of the $200 or $600 tuition deposits and then withdraws from the university will forfeit the deposits. In all instances noted above, any balance on the account, less financial aid, will be refunded.
Refund Policies, After the Start of Classes
Law students who withdraw from any of their classes after the published “Last Day for Late Registration/Schedule Changes” will not be entitled to any adjustment of their charges for tuition and fees.
Students who affect a complete withdrawal or leave of absence from the university, regardless of the reason, including medical, will be granted a pro-rata refund of tuition and fees, less an administrative fee of $100. Late fees are non-refundable either in total or pro-ration. The prorata refunds will be computed on the following basis:
Fall and Spring Terms:
Withdrawal first week 80%
Withdrawal second week 60%
Withdrawal third week 40%
Withdrawal fourth week 20%
Withdrawal after fourth week 0%
Withdrawal first week 80%
Withdrawal second week 50%
Withdrawal third week 30%
Withdrawal fourth week 0%
The date of withdrawal for purposes of calculating the refund is the date on which the student makes written notice to the associate dean’s office for withdrawal. No retroactive withdrawals are permitted for refund purposes. The refund schedule listed above is applied regardless of the reason for withdrawal, including medical reasons.
Dismissals and Suspensions
A student who is either dismissed or suspended by the university for any reason during either academic semester will receive a refund based on the applicable refund percentage in effect at the time of the student's dismissal or suspension (first four weeks). After the fourth academic week, the refund policy as stated above will be applied. In addition, a student who is dismissed or suspended will be charged all administrative fees and board fees as prescribed.
Students using the university's payment plan who withdraw during the refund period (first four weeks) should note that their forfeiture will be computed on the full amount charged regarding tuition and fees, and not on the amount remitted via the payment plan. In addition, the $75 service charge for using the payment plan will also be included in the list of charges. After the fourth week, the balance due under the payment plan will be due and payable on the date of withdrawal.
Return of Title IV Funds
In addition to the university’s refund policy that prorates tuition charges during the first four weeks of the semester, the university is obliged to return to the federal government that portion of federal aid that is unearned. An award of Title IV funds is based on a payment period or term.
Please note: It is important to understand that if your withdrawal date is on or before the completion of 60 percent of the semester, “unearned aid” will result. If you have received a refund as a result of aid applied to your account prior to your withdrawal date, you will have a balance due the university on your student account.
A withdrawal requires the university to calculate the unearned portion of aid awarded as of the student's official withdrawal date.
The university must determine the following:
- The official date of withdrawal. A student must formally withdraw or request a leave of absence, in writing, to the associate dean of the law school. The date of withdrawal must be documented.
- The payment period, term identified.
- The aid that has been disbursed or could have been disbursed.
- The percentage of federal aid earned by the student as of the withdrawal date.
- The percentage of Title IV aid that has not been earned by the student.
The percentage of a payment period completed is determined by dividing the number of calendar days in the payment period into the number of calendar days completed as of the withdrawal date.
The university will notify the student if the student is eligible for a post withdrawal disbursement.
- The offer, (if eligible) of post withdrawal disbursement, will be made in writing within 30 days of the withdrawal date.
- The student must respond within 14 days of the notification.
- The university will disburse funds within 90 days of the date of withdrawal.
- If the student does not respond, no portion of the late disbursement that is not credited to the student's account will be disbursed.
- The student will be notified electronically or in writing of the outcome of the late disbursement.
The total amount of unearned assistance to be returned is the lesser of (a) the total amount disbursed minus the total amount earned or (b) the institutional charges time the percentage of aid unearned. The student is responsible for returning the remainder of unearned aid that is calculated by taking the total of unearned aid and subtracting the amount the university is required to return.
The student retains Title IV eligibility for 45 days during which the student must:
- Repay in full.
- Make satisfactory arrangements to repay the university.
- Make satisfactory arrangements to repay the U.S. Department of Education.
The university is required to report all overpayments to NSLDS and must report within 30 days after:
- The student takes timely action on the options offered.
- The student fails to repay the overpayment or sign an agreement with the university within a 45-day period.
- The student fails to meet the terms of the agreement signed with the school.
Title IV funds must be returned in the following order:
- Unsubsidized Federal Direct Loans
- Subsidized Federal Direct Loans
- Federal Direct Plus Loans
- Other Title IV assistance