Interdisciplinary Minors

Human culture, creativity and knowledge are often produced and experienced in the spaces across and between the traditional disciplines. Interdisciplinary minors—those that focus on areas of interest rather than established disciplines—afford students an opportunity to examine topics from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Through these cross-departmental minors, students embark on an ambitious, meaningful learning experience that complements their work in their majors and in the University Curriculum. Students hone critical intellectual skills by evaluating facets of human culture and the natural world from various viewpoints and integrating these insights to form new knowledge and understanding.

Anthropology (AN)

AN 101. Local Cultures, Global Issues: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology.3 Credits.

This introductory course provides a broad overview of cultural anthropology, giving students the tools to understand, speak and write about human diversities and similarities cross-culturally. Course materials emphasize issues of race, ethnicity, class and gender, making visible for students the inequalities and power dimensions embedded in societies throughout the globe.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

AN 103. Dirt, Artifacts and Ideas: Introduction to Archaeology.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the social science of archaeology, one of the four subdisciplines within anthropology. Students explore the history and methodology of archaeology, human evolution and adaptation. They learn to interpret archaeological data and study the relationship between humans and the natural environment. The ethics of doing archaeological fieldwork and the contemporary debates within the discipline also are discussed.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

AN 104. Bones, Genes and Everything In Between: Intro to Biological Anthropology.3 Credits.

In this course, students explore human origins and modern human diversity from a holistic, biocultural evolutionary perspective. Participants begin with the processes of evolution and natural selection, along with the mechanisms of genetic inheritance at the molecular level and its role in modern human diversity. Next they focus on our closest living relatives, the non-human primates, and then discuss the evidence for primate and human evolution found in the fossil record. The course concludes by exploring the origins of modern humans and their dispersal across the globe.

Corequisites: Take AN 104L.
Offered: Every year, All
UC: Natural Sciences

AN 104L. Bones, Genes and Everything In Between: Intro to Biological Anthropology Lab.1 Credit.

Lab to accompany AN 104.

Corequisites: Take AN 104.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Natural Sciences

AN 200. Special Topics.3 Credits.

Subject varies each semester according to student and faculty interest.

Offered: As needed, All

AN 210. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Gender, Sex and Sexuality (WS 211).3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the social and cultural constructions of gender, sex and sexuality around the world. Students discover the way anthropologists approach these topics. They explore the constructions as they relate to notions of biology, family, households, work, migration, inequality/inequity, economics and class status, violence, and race and ethnicity. Discussions focus on what gender, sex and sexuality are, what they mean and how they theoretically and practically matter as categories.

Offered: Every other year
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

AN 220. Anthropology of Development.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the concept and practice of "development" from an anthropological perspective. Students learn how to assess and critique the ideological threads in development discourses, and are able to identify how anthropological approaches to development differ from other social sciences and allied disciplines. Students also learn how classical social theory continues to influence policy makers and international aid bureaucrats.

Offered: As needed
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

AN 227. Tradititional Rites of Passage Theory: Turning Points.3 Credits.

In this course, students examine the study abroad experience as a life turning point, looking through the lens of traditional Rites of Passage Theory, as put forth by anthropologist Arnold van Gennep. They connect each of the traditional Rites of Passage phases to the study abroad experience (i.e., separation, liminality and reincorporation) and begin to develop an understanding of why rites of passage were/are formulated, and how to apply the concepts and elements presented in traditional Rites of Passage Theory not only to the study abroad experience, but also to personal, academic and professional turning points throughout one's life.

Offered: Every year, Spring
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

AN 233. Practicing Archaeology.3 Credits.

Archaeology is an exciting multidisciplinary field that combines approaches from the social and natural sciences to reconstruct ancient human behavior. In this course, students explore the theories and methods that guide archaeological inquiry through lectures, class discussions and interactive laboratory and field exercises. Several guest lectures highlight various specializations and applications in the field, including Geographic Information Systems, archaeological chemistry, bioarchaeology, museum curation, public archaeology and cultural resource management.

Offered: As needed
UC: Social Sciences

AN 237. Anthropology of Health and Medicine.3 Credits.

This course takes a comparative study approach by looking at the diverse ways in which societies throughout the world both define and respond to disease and illness. Special attention is paid to how differently people understand the body and its relation to illness, and the importance of cross-cultural understanding for treating and curing illness in pluralistic societies.

Offered: Every other year
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

AN 240. Ethnographic Theory and Practice.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to ethnographic theory, method, practice and application within the discipline of anthropology. The goals are: 1) to provide students with a background of the history of ethnography; 2) to introduce students to the range of ethnographic writings in the contemporary era; 3) to encourage students to think about what ethnographic writings teach us and why they matter; 4) to compare ethnography to other forms of academic and popular writings; and 5) to consider the ethical dimensions and dilemmas of conducting ethnographic research.

Offered: As needed
UC: Social Sciences

AN 243. Ancient Food For Thought.3 Credits.

In this course, students explore the origins (and consequences) of food production and consumption from an anthropological perspective. Participants examine evidence for ancient diets in a variety of different societies (hunter-gatherer, pastoral and agricultural). They analyze the relationship between our diet and other aspects of culture and explore how these types of societies have changed over the past several thousand years. Students then review contemporary environmental and health problems related to food production and consumption and draw from the past to understand and potentially address these issues.

Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

AN 245. The Anthropology of Gender-Based Violence.3 Credits.

This course explores the topic of gender-based violence and related social problems analyzed from an anthropological perspective. Students discuss such issues as family violence within households, community level violence, the politics of reproduction, war crimes against women and girls, and the relationship between political economy, criminalization and social justice. Students analyze such theoretical frameworks as structural violence and social suffering, the in/compatibility of human rights and cultural rights, political-economy and globalization theories. The case studies for this course come from the Middle East, the South Pacific, the Caribbean, Europe, North America, Africa and Asia. Case studies of indigenous peoples' responses to violence also are used.

Offered: As needed

AN 250. Forensic Anthropology.3 Credits.

This course provides a general introduction to forensic anthropology, an applied subfield of biological anthropology, wherein human remains of medico-legal significance are analyzed. Students review the history of the field, basic skeletal anatomy and human biological variation, recovery of human remains and how time since death can be established. The course also covers the identification of trauma and disease in both modern and prehistoric skeletons, as well as markers of individualization that may lead to positive identification.

Offered: Every other year
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

AN 251. Tales from the Crypt: Research Methods in Bioarchaeology.3 Credits.

Students discover how skeletal studies can provide information about past lives. They learn human osteology (the study of bones) and how to use cutting-edge digital technology to obtain data from the skeleton. They formulate a research design for data collection with skeletons housed on campus, and then conduct original research on an anthropological question related to the bones. Participants discuss and debate major topics in bioarchaeology.

Corequisites: Take AN 251L.
Offered: Every other year

AN 251L. Research Methods in Bioarchaelogy Lab.0 Credits.

This lab accompanies AN 251 (Tales from the Crypt: Research Methods in Bioarchaeology).

Corequisites: Take AN 251.
Offered: Every other year

AN 252. The Science of Human Diversity.3 Credits.

This course surveys human phenotypic variation through an evolutionary and biocultural perspective. The role of genetics and environment (including culture) is discussed in relation to the heritability of human differences. Participants also consider how culture and society shape an understanding of human biology. Topics as diverse as environmental adaptations, "race," sex differences, aging, growth, nutrition, demography and genetic disorders are addressed from this biocultural perspective.

Offered: As needed
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele, Intercultural Understand

AN 299. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Pursuit in depth of a specific topic. The topic and credit are to be arranged with an instructor.

Offered: As needed, All

Arabic (ARB)

ARB 101. Elementary Arabic I.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) language and to cultures of the Arabic-speaking world. Students develop accuracy and fluency in pronunciation and writing of Arabic letters, comprehend basic vocabulary and language structures, learn to use culturally appropriate social greetings and other expressions, learn the basics of grammar, and acquire insight into the culture and diversity of the Arabic-speaking world.

Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring
UC: Breadth Elective

ARB 102. Elementary Arabic II.3 Credits.

This course is a continuation of Arabic 101.

Prerequisites: Take ARB 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

ARB 200. Arab Culture and Society.3 Credits.

ARB 200 examines the historical, social, religious, cultural and artistic aspects of the modern Arab world. Students are exposed to traditions and customs of the Arabs in the Modern Middle East. Also, they become familiar with the diversity of the region and gain knowledge of the history and development of Arabic culture from the classical period to the present and the major cultural institutions of the Arabic-speaking world. The course provides students with a view of the cultural contours of the modern Arab world and the richness of the Arab cultural heritage.

Offered: As needed

ARB 201. Continuing Elementary Arabic III.3 Credits.

This course is a continuation of the study of Modern Standard Arabic. Students further develop their listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing abilities, and their understanding of the cultures of the Arabic-speaking world.

Prerequisites: Take ARB 102.
Offered: As needed
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

ARB 299. Independent Study: Advanced Arabic.3 Credits.

Chinese (CN)

CN 101. Elementary Chinese I.3 Credits.

This course is an introduction to Mandarin Chinese as a spoken and written language. Students develop reading, writing, oral comprehension and speaking ability in basic Chinese. Chinese culture, customs and business practice are introduced.

Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

CN 102. Elementary Chinese II.3 Credits.

This course is a continuation of Chinese 101.

Prerequisites: Take CN 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

CN 200. Chinese Culture and Civilization.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to Chinese culture and civilization across time and regions. It provides an overview for students to grasp the important cultural concepts and to understand the great inventions created by China. Subjects include food and cuisine, traditional clothes, architecture and scenery, festival celebration, Chinese arts, literature and proverbs, tradition and taboos, religious beliefs, Chinese medicine, and great inventions. The course is conducted in English and does not require prior knowledge of Chinese.

Prerequisites: Take EN 101.
Offered: As needed

CN 201. Intermediate Chinese I.3 Credits.

Grammar is enhanced for strengthening sentence patterns. Students are expected to communicate mostly in Chinese during class and write a longer essay for presentation. Students are exposed to everyday life topics, and cultural highlights increase understanding of current and past Chinese cultural phenomena.

Prerequisites: Take CN 102.
Offered: Every other year, Fall
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

CN 202. Intermediate Chinese II.3 Credits.

This course is a continuation of CN 201.

Prerequisites: Take CN 201.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

CN 299. Independent Study.1-3 Credits.

Offered: As needed, All

CN 399. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Global Public Health (GPH)

GPH 201. Introduction to Global Public Health.3 Credits.

Health is an essential human right, but much of the world still does not have access to basic public health services. The course explores how health is measured and the conditions that particularly affect the poor. Principles of public health, major global communicable diseases (e.g., HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis), maternal-child health, and noncommunicable conditions are reviewed. Strategies in control of disease and achieving global health are explored. Essential elements of study design, epidemiology and biostatistics also are taught. Course instruction includes textbooks, medical literature, popular writings, film and group work. This course is the required introductory course for GPH minor students. Non-GPH minor students need prior approval.

Offered: Every year, Spring

GPH 301. Capstone in Global Public Health.3 Credits.

This capstone course in global public health consists of a senior seminar during which students synthesize and reflect upon their academic, service and international experiences throughout the GPH minor. Through a series of readings, discussions, writings and presentations, students review key aspects of GPH and formulate their own responses and conclusions. During the capstone seminar, students also integrate the work they have done throughout the minor. This could include narrative writings, photographs and research results. The final course requirement is a poster presentation that reports on and displays the student's GPH theme or focus and demonstrates successful completion of the minor's learning objectives. Available only to students who are minoring in global public health.

Prerequisites: Take GPH 201.
Offered: Every year, Spring

Hebrew (HBR)

HBR 101. Introduction to Modern Hebrew.3 Credits.

This is an introductory course in modern Hebrew. Students begin to achieve basic proficiency in reading, writing, speaking and comprehending modern Hebrew. Students are introduced to the Hebrew alphabet and use Hebrew script. They learn elementary conversational skills and basic Hebrew grammar.

Offered: Every other year, Fall
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

HBR 102. Introduction to Elementary Modern Hebrew II.3 Credits.

This course is a continuation of Hebrew 101. Students review and expand their grammatical study leading to deeper comprehension of style and usage. Students learn the fundamentals of grammar and syntax as well as idioms and special expressions. Emphasis is given to all four communicative skills (speaking, reading, listening and writing). The semester covers the study of the present tense, basics of the past tense, and some of the future tense in most of the conjugation models as well as numbers, colors, daily life situations, etc.

Prerequisites: Take HBR 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

History (HS)

HS 111. The Rise of the West.3 Credits.

Beginning with the origins of Western civilizations in the ancient Near East, students examine the development of Western culture and society from its beginnings through the 16th century, with emphasis on the nature and values of three successive polities: the classical world of Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, and the origins of the modern world in the Renaissance/Reformation. Consideration is given to the idea of "the West" and its interaction with and contact with non-Western cultures and peoples.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 111H. Honors The Rise of the West.3 Credits.

Beginning with the origins of Western civilizations in the ancient Near East, students examine the development of Western culture and society from its beginnings through the 16th century, with emphasis on the nature and values of three successive polities: the classical world of Greece and Rome, the Middle Ages, and the origins of the modern world in the Renaissance/Reformation. Consideration is given to the idea of "the West" and its interaction with and contact with non-Western cultures and peoples.

Offered: As needed

HS 112. The West in the World.3 Credits.

Beginning with the emergence of the modern state in the 16th century, students examine the social, political, economic and cultural developments of Western civilization and its interaction with the rest of the world. Emphasis is on the growth of science and technology in the 17th century, the emergence of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, the age of industrialization, nationalism and imperialism, social upheaval in the 19th century, the domination of the West over the worlds and challenges to that domination during the 20th century.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 112H. Honors The West and The World.3 Credits.

Beginning with the emergence of the modern state in the 16th century, students examine the social, political, economic and cultural developments of Western civilization and its interaction with the rest of the world. Emphasis is on the growth of science and technology in the 17th century, the emergence of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, the age of industrialization, nationalism and imperialism, social upheaval in the 19th century, the domination of the West over the worlds and challenges to that domination during the 20th century.

Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 122. Modern World History.3 Credits.

This course examines key developments in world history beginning in roughly 1300 with the rise of the Turco-Mongol Empires and ending with the nationalist and independence movements of the 20th century. Students examine and analyze major events that occurred in the non-Western world. Special attention is paid to South Asia, East Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Students gain a better understanding of the history and culture of these regions, as well how the non-Western world has impacted the global community, both past and present.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

HS 131. U.S. History to 1877.3 Credits.

This course traces the formation and expansion of the American nation from Colonial settlement through Reconstruction using selected episodes. Themes explored include the development of a national identity, models of citizenship, the role of government, and divisions based upon gender, ethnicity, race and class.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 132. U.S. History Since Reconstruction.3 Credits.

This course explores the evolution of the American people and their nation through the major political, social and economic changes of the late 19th century to the present. Key themes include changing expectations of governance, the quest to achieve the full promise of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. ascent to global hegemony.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 200. Special Topics in History.3 Credits.

This course includes readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 200H. Honors Special Topics in History.3 Credits.

This course includes readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 201. Historical Writing.1 Credit.

The practice of history is founded on the ability to write clearly. In this intensive writing seminar, students are introduced to the fundamentals of historical writing, including the basics of grammar and sentence structure, the construction of good paragraphs and the crafting of a historical narrative. Since writing and thinking are intimately linked, students also practice the art of historical thinking, including the development of historical arguments, the critical use of historical sources and the appropriate use of historical documentation using the Chicago Manual of Style. Majors only.

Offered: As needed

HS 202. Introduction to Public History.3 Credits.

This course provides an introduction to the field of public history. There are a variety of opinions on what constitutes public history, but generally it is considered to be the presentation of history to broad audiences outside the traditional classroom setting. The practice and presentation of history along these lines usually takes the form of museum exhibition, historic preservation, cultural/historic resource management, public programming, documentary film and oral history, but it is hardly limited to these areas. This course aims to introduce students to these exciting possibilities, and to appreciate the ever-widening scope of the public historian in the new media age.

Offered: Every year, Fall

HS 208. Twentieth-Century World History.3 Credits.

This course covers the history of the world since the 19th century focusing on the experiences and perspectives of the non-Western world. Students study the rise of nationalism, the disintegration of empires, and the growth of communal and ethnic strife across the globe in the 20th century.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

HS 209. Twentieth-Century Europe.3 Credits.

Events in Europe during the 20th century radically transformed the world. The century began, and perhaps ended, in periods of vibrant intellectual, social and cultural development and optimism. In between these eras, however, Europe was at the center of the two bloodiest wars humanity has ever known and the rise of brutal totalitarian states. Students examine the complex cross currents in European society during the period roughly from the 1890s to the present, focusing on the political, social, intellectual and economic developments in European society that helped shape this turbulent century. Students also learn about the impact of non-European peoples, particularly those of Africa and Asia, on internal European developments.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 210. Contemporary America.3 Credits.

This survey of American history from 1945 to the present focuses on both social and political matters. Students study topics including the McCarthy era and the nuclear age, the civil and women's rights movements, Nixon and the Watergate crisis, gay liberation, the Reagan revolution and end of the Cold War, and the era of American global dominance and its challenges. Particular attention is given to the impact of the diverse cultures and peoples that have emerged in contemporary American society.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 210H. Honors Contemporary America.3 Credits.

This survey of American history from 1945 to the present focuses on both domestic and foreign policy matters including the Cold War, the McCarthy era, the civil rights movement, the "great society," Vietnam, Nixon and the Watergate crisis.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

HS 211. Popular Culture in American History.3 Credits.

This course focuses on an interpretation of American history through popular culture. Samples of popular culture materials in various historical periods are examined with special attention to music, film, television, and sports.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 213. The Roman World.3 Credits.

This course examines the historical evolution of Rome which, through its laws, language, literature and institutions, has strongly influenced the modern world. How did the Romans win their Empire? What was the character of these people? And what was the essence of the Roman achievement?

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 215. American Business History.3 Credits.

Students examine American business history from the mercantile era to the decline of laissez faire, with particular attention to New England. Topics include America as a developing economy: trade, commerce and the transportation revolution; the Industrial Revolution and the American system of manufacture; the managerial revolution and the growth of labor unrest; Progressivism, the cult of efficiency, and the decline of laissez faire.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 220. American Environmental History.3 Credits.

This course examines American society's interaction with nature since the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century. Students consider the intentions and values that guided the use of America's natural resources and the transformation of its landscape. While this historical legacy is most apparent in America's agricultural, industrial and conservation activities, it has been equally profound in the rise of America's environmental movement, tourism, recreation, ecological research and global environmental awareness. Since we are located in the New England/Mid-Atlantic region, this course occasionally departs from the broad survey of American environmental history and treats issues that are particularly germane to the region.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

HS 227. Russian Cultural and Intellectual History.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to changing concepts of authority and the role of reason in the ordering of social and cultural values, the cultural mission of Russian Orthodoxy, the growth of a secular cultural elite, and the modern struggle to define individual and community and values in literature. This course includes readings in Russian thought and literature.

Offered: As needed

HS 228. Twentieth-Century Russia.3 Credits.

This course considers Russian politics, society and culture in the 20th century, the Soviets in world affairs, and changing American views of the former Soviet Union.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 229. Irish History.3 Credits.

This examination of Irish history from the pre-Christian Celtic era to modern times focuses on the changing character of Irish culture reflected in literary, political and religious documents. Special consideration is given to the origins of modern political and sectarian conflicts through a consideration of the history of Anglo-Irish relations, particularly the ramifications of the Tudor conquest, the Great Hunger and the rise of Irish nationalism.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 230. The Rise of Modern Science.3 Credits.

In this course students explore the development of modern science since Copernicus and the impact that science has had on our world in the past four centuries. Students examine the major historical developments in astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine over the past 400 years. They also explore the complex interaction of science with society especially its contact with issues in religion, politics and gender. No specific background in science in required.

Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

HS 231. The World of Tudor/Stuart Britain.3 Credits.

This course explores early modern Britain from the establishment of the Tudor monarchy in 1485 until the end of the Stuart kings with the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Areas of focus include: Henry VIII, the Reformation, Elizabeth I, Shakespeare's London, Scotland's witch trials, and the English Civil War. Through exposure to and examination of primary source documents and historical interpretations, students come to see how the history of early modern Britain holds foundations for the modern world.

Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 232. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire.3 Credits.

This course analyzes the expansion, consolidation, workings and eventual disintegration of the British Empire from the 17th century until its collapse in the 20th century. It touches on the colonial experiences of North America, the West Indies, India, China, the Middle East, Australia, Ireland and Africa. Students examine the emergence of nationalism in the colonized regions. Special emphasis is placed on how the major colonies were affected by the international imperial context, as well as the contributions that subject peoples and cultures made to colonial history and the trajectory of the empire.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall
UC: Humanities

HS 235. History of Modern China/Asian Studies.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the political and social institutions of China, schools of thought, legal and moral concepts and literary, artistic and intellectual developments, elements of stability and change and international contacts to recent times.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course;
Offered: Every year, All

HS 236. History of Modern Japan/Asian Studies.3 Credits.

This course considers the historical background of modern Japan; period of seclusion; restoration of a centralized monarchy; economic and political developments, establishment of an empire and World War II and postwar period.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 241. African-American Experiences to Reconstruction.3 Credits.

This course examines the history of the United States by looking at African-American experiences up to the end of the 19th century. Using a wide array of primary materials from songs to autobiographies to speeches, in print and audiovisual forms, students explore how people of African descent conceptualized and constructed their identities and navigated their struggles against inequalities. A central theme is that people of African descent living in America created themselves under circumstances of inhumanity, exploitation and oppression.

Offered: Every Third Year, Fall
UC: Humanities

HS 242. African-American Experience Since Reconstruction.3 Credits.

Although emancipation and reconstruction amendments ended a particular set of oppression and exploitation, the legal conferral of citizenship for African Americans neither ended institutional racism nor secured the redistribution of resources that had hitherto entrenched inequalities, prejudices and the denial of opportunities to black people. In this course, students examine how African Americans cultivated, expressed and debated the possibilities of, and alternatives to, equal inclusion and participation in American democracy and society in the last three decades of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 254. Colonial Latin America.3 Credits.

This course offers an introduction and examination of the history of Latin America and its people from Pre-Columbian times through independence. The course focuses on both the indigenous and European peoples and the many consequences of their interactions. Some areas of examination include European expansion and conquest, the impact on and reactions of indigenous populations, the formation of a colonial society, issues of race, ethnicity, class, and gender, and the establishment of economic and political structures.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 271. History of Southeast Asia 1.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the cultures and history of the countries and people of Southeast Asia. The course covers pre-European, Colonial, and post-Colonial periods, with emphasis on the developments and problems since World War II. First semester: the islands.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 272. History of Southeast Asia 2.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the cultures and history of the countries and people of Southeast Asia. The course covers pre-European, Colonial, and post-Colonial periods, with emphasis on the developments and problems since World War II. Second semester: mainland countries.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 273. African History and Culture.3 Credits.

This course presents an introduction to traditional African culture and the different patterns of historical development south of the Sahara. Topics include the role of trade in the rise of Sudanic and East Coast civilizations, diversity of political European presence before and after the partition of Africa, and contemporary trends since independence.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 274. History of India.3 Credits.

This course examines the history of the South Asian subcontinent from the ancient to the modern period. Students examine broad outlines of historical developments in the ancient and medieval periods, and conduct a more in-depth study of the modern period, beginning with the establishment of the Mughal Empire in approximately 1526. The course presents key historiographical debates on the history of the subcontinent, such as early Islamic invasions, reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire, the foundations of British rule, Hindu-Muslims relations, and the impact of the Raj on social and familial relations.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

HS 275. History of the Middle East.3 Credits.

This course analyzes the economic, cultural and political developments in the Middle East between 600 CE and 1919 CE by exploring the rise of Islam, the Umayyad and Abbasid Empires, the Ottoman Empire, and the gradual shift from Ottoman to European influence in the 19th century. It examines the rise of nationalism and the effect of World War I on the political map of the region. Emphasis is placed on "critical issues" such as the status of women, terrorism and the place of Islam. Both contemporary viewpoints and historiographical debates surrounding these issues are discussed.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall
UC: Humanities

HS 286. Introduction to Medieval Europe.3 Credits.

This course provides a general overview of the Middle Ages from late Antiquity to the crises of the 14th century. It explores the period of European history that holds the foundations of much of western society. Topics of particular significance include: the Medieval Church, the rise of the university, relations with the East, the Crusades and the growth of towns and trade.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 294. American Civilization: Prosperity and Depression in the 1920s and 1930s.3 Credits.

This course combines literary and historical interpretations of the period between the two world wars. American values and attitudes during the 1920s and 1930s are examined within six major themes: disillusionment, middle class values, conflict of race and class, the depression, rise of fascism at home and abroad, and the prewar dilemma.

Prerequisites: Take one 100-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 299. Independent Study in History.3 Credits.

Individual study of special area including internships. By agreement of the student and with prior permission of the department chairperson, the student may undertake directed readings with discussion, examination and reports as arranged by the instructor in an area of the student's interest not normally offered through scheduled courses. Available to history majors or other equally qualified students.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 300. Special Topics in American History.3 Credits.

This course focuses on readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 301. Special Topics II - European History.3 Credits.

This course focuses on readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.

HS 302. Colonizing the Body.3 Credits.

This course takes an in-depth look at the ways in which empire and imperial policies reshaped and reformulated the body of the colonized subject, setting up social categories of difference that corresponded neatly to European imperial notions of biological difference. Using India as a case study, it examines how Indian bodies were "scientifically" classified, categorized and redefined to underscore and perpetuate European political dominance. The course highlights imperial policies that buttressed certain privileged notions of racial, gendered, economic/occupational and anatomical difference.

Offered: Every year, Fall

HS 303. Historiography and Historical Methods.3 Credits.

This advanced seminar is intended for majors and other students interested in deepening their knowledge of the techniques of reading, writing, researching and interpreting history. Students get a broad introduction to the concept of historiography and consider the ways in which thinking about the past has changed over time. Students also learn the foundational skills needed for the researching and writing of history, including an introduction to basic research techniques, compilation and organization of primary and secondary source materials, and the practical and theoretical skills necessary to undertake historical writing.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 305. Vietnam (COM 305).3 Credits.

This course presents a study of the Vietnam Era and draws conclusions about policy for the future. Media coverage of the war and its effect on both national policy and political change are emphasized.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course or MSS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 307. The Holocaust (MSS 307).3 Credits.

Through an examination of historical texts, literature and film, this course examines the systematic destruction of 10 million human beings at the hands of the Third Reich.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course or MSS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 308. U.S. Women's History (WS 308).3 Credits.

This course covers the experience of women in America before 1900. Women's work in the family and community is stressed. Individual research is required on varied topics, such as women and rural life, women and medicine, women in the professions, women and the charter of institutions, women and human rights, and women and the sea.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed

HS 309. Women in America 1920-Present (WS 309).3 Credits.

This course covers the experience of women in the 20th-century United States. Women's economic and political roles are stressed, and individual research on a specific topic is required. In past years, topics have included American women and their role in the world and women and rural life.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed

HS 310. The Ancient Near East.3 Credits.

Through lectures and readings students are introduced to civilizations of the Near East: Egyptians, Sumerians, Hittites, Kassites, Mitannians, Babylonians, Hebrews and Assyrians. Primary emphasis is on development of chronology, rise and fall of the great empires, and origin of Western religious tradition.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed

HS 311. The Ancient Hebrews.3 Credits.

This course covers the political, social, economic and cultural treatment of the ancient Hebrews from the time of Abraham to the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 312. Ancient Greece.3 Credits.

This course examines the political, social and intellectual or cultural history of the ancient Greek world, with special focus on the period from the 8th century renaissance depicted in Homer, through the emergence and growth of city states such as Sparta and Athens, and ending with the 4th century transformation of the Mediterranean world by Alexander the Great. Emphasis is placed on the study of both literary sources, such as Herodotus, Thucydides, and Greek tragedians, and material sources, such as the Parthenon and red and black pottery.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course or PL 101.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

HS 313. The Roman World.3 Credits.

The historical evolution of Rome which, through its laws, language, literature and institutions, has strongly influenced modern Europe, is examined. How did the Romans win their empire? What was the character of these people? And what was the essence of the Roman achievement?

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 314. Europe in the Early Medieval Period, 325-842.3 Credits.

This course presents a study of the Dark Ages, the first five centuries of Europe's medieval period, which have intrigued historians as a period of decline. Factors that brought about the collapse and transformation of the civilization built by the ancients, problems that afflicted men in the barbarian West, and the birth of modern Europe are explored.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 315. Introduction to Medieval Europe: Europe in the High Middle Ages.3 Credits.

The Europe known to the 20th century, with all of its diversity of cultures has its origins in the Middle Ages-the thousand-year period that separates Christopher Columbus from Attila the Hun. This course examines those four centuries from the point of view that modern Europe's institutions, modes of behavior, character and problems passed their formative adolescent years in the medieval period.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 316. The European Renaissance.3 Credits.

This course provides a topical exploration of the period commonly referred to as the Renaissance. It explores the period known for innovations in art and literature, but also addresses the political and social backdrop of Northern Italy and beyond. Topics of particular importance include changes in literature and education, innovations in art, modes of behavior and the emergence of modern political ideas.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 317. The European Reformation.3 Credits.

This course explores Western Christendom from the late Middle Ages through the 17th century during the Age of Reformation. The central focus of the course is religion, but since the Reformation did not occur in isolation, it addresses a variety of themes in the study of early modern Europe. The aim of this course is to understand the major figures, movements and ideas that contributed to the division of Western Christendom into numerous confessional communities.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 318. European History, 1555-1715.3 Credits.

Students review European civilization from the Peace of Augsburg to the death of Louis XIV, including the growth of the state, the development of the bureaucracy and diplomacy, the increase in warfare and the political struggle over taxation, the scientific revolution, and the shift toward secular values.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, All

HS 319. European History, 1715-1815.3 Credits.

This course presents a survey of "old regime," Enlightenment, French Revolution and Napoleonic eras in European history; movements of thought and culture and their social background; the feudal reaction and middle class protest in France, and national reactions to the French developments elsewhere in Europe.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, All

HS 320. European History, 1815-1914.3 Credits.

Political, social and economic developments in Europe from the Congress of Vienna to the outbreak of World War I are examined. Legitimacy and the Concert of Europe; industrialization, liberalism, revolution, nationalism and imperialism also are considered.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, All

HS 321. European History, 1914-1945.3 Credits.

This course presents a study of World War I and its economic, social, political and ideological consequences. The collapse of the Versailles settlement and interwar period is considered. World War II is covered, as are diplomatic and military consequences for the Cold War era.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, All

HS 322. History of World War I.3 Credits.

The origins of World War I and the problems of mass mobilization, war aims, weaponry and political attitudes are analyzed. The major military encounters, the war as it affected non-Europeans and the diplomacy of neutrality are discussed. Emphasis is on the peace treaties and the repercussions.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 323. World War II.3 Credits.

This in-depth study of the diplomatic, political and military aspects of World War II, 1939-1945, presents the background of the war in Europe and East Asia and the course of events in all major theaters of operations. Wartime conferences and long-term outcomes are discussed.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 324. History of England to 1688.3 Credits.

This course examines some of the major political, constitutional, religious and social aspects of English history from the period of the Roman occupation to the "glorious revolution." Themes include: the evolution of kingship and government, the common law and the courts, the history of the church and the break with Rome, the development of agriculture and commerce, English overseas expansion, and the emergence of democracy.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 325. History of England: 1688 to the Present.3 Credits.

The history of the English people from the "glorious revolution" to the present is explored. Primary focus is on the major political, constitutional, religious, economic and social developments that have contributed to the making of modern Britain. Themes include: the rise of the middle class, the expanding powers of Parliament, the Industrial Revolution and the acquisition and loss of empire.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 326. Witches and Werewolves in the Early Modern World (WS 326).3 Credits.

This course explores the general belief in witchcraft and other supernatural creatures in the larger context of religion and culture in the early modern world. Participants examine how belief in the supernatural led to a widespread fear and persecution of individuals deemed witches or other consorts of the devil. Using the groundbreaking work of historians, and the primary documents of the period, this course examines the origins and processes of the witch trials. Since approximately 75 percent of those in Europe accused of witchcraft were women, the course examines how gender, misogyny and scapegoating shaped the persecution and prosecution of the more vulnerable members of premodern society. More broadly, the class examines how Christianity both affirmed and condemned these beliefs and practices and how people used "superstition" to make sense of the world around them.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

HS 327. Islamic Societies and Cultures to 1300.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the history of the Islamic peoples. The course attempts to impart an understanding of the identity, character and accomplishments of Arabic-speaking world. Particular emphasis is on the life of Muhammad, and on the political, economic, social and cultural achievements of the medieval Islamic empire.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 330. History of Western Medicine.3 Credits.

This course examines the development of the Western medical tradition from its origins in the ancient Near East to modern times. The course emphasizes an understanding of medical theory and practice in relation to larger social, intellectual and scientific developments in the West. Topics include Hippocratic and Galenic medicine, medieval medical theory and practice, the emergence of new medical ideas in the Renaissance, and the development of modern scientific medicine.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 331. The British Empire and Commonwealth.3 Credits.

Students study the expansion, consolidation, workings and eventual disintegration of the modern British Empire. The course begins in 1600, with the creation of the English East India Company. Students learn about the growth of the Empire in detail, touching on the colonial experiences of India, the West Indies, China, the Middle East and the African continent. Finally, students examine the emergence of nationalism in the colonized regions and the subsequent collapse of empire in the 20th century. Special emphasis is placed on how the major colonies were affected by British rule, as well as the contributions that subject peoples and cultures made to the unfolding of colonial history and the trajectory of Empire. Students should expect to attend lecture regularly, participate in weekly class discussions, as well as demonstrate mastery over the material in written assignments.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 332. History of India.3 Credits.

Students examine the history of the South Asian subcontinent between 1500 and 1950, roughly. Beginning with the establishment of the Mughal Empire in approximately 1526, students critically discuss the shift from "native" empire to British rule in the 1800s, as well as look at the various challenges to British rule and the Indian independence movement of the 20th century and its effects. Along the way, students analyze key historiographical debates on the history of the subcontinent, such as the reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire, the foundations of British rule, Hindu-Muslims relations, and the impact of the Raj on social and familial relations. Students should expect to attend lecture regularly, participate in weekly class discussions, as well as demonstrate mastery over the material in written assignments.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 333. The Middle East, 1300-1919; Critical Issues.3 Credits.

Students analyze the economic, cultural and political developments in the Middle East between 1300 and 1919, beginning with the rise of the Ottoman Empire in roughly 1300 through the gradual shift from Ottoman to European influence in the 19th century. Students also discuss the rise of nationalism and the effect of World War I on the political map of the Middle East, paying close attention to events in Saudi Arabia and modern-day Israel. Emphasis is placed on certain "critical issues" in the study of the Middle East, such as the status of women, terrorism and the place of Islam in Middle Eastern history. Participants take a close look at both contemporary viewpoints and historiographical debates surrounding these issues. Students should expect to attend lecture regularly, participate in weekly class discussions, as well as demonstrate mastery over the material in written assignments.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 340. The Colonial Period to 1763.3 Credits.

Through lectures and discussion of source and secondary readings, the American Colonial period to the pre-Revolutionary era is considered in all its aspects: social, political, religious and literary. Emphasis is on the increasing similarity and the approach toward unity of the several colonies.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, All

HS 341. The American Revolution.3 Credits.

Through lectures and discussions based on source and secondary readings, this course considers American history from 1763 to 1787, the pre-Revolutionary period, military, political and theoretical aspects of the Revolution, the Confederation, and the writing of the Constitution. Emphasis is on the political thought that culminated in the creation of the Constitution.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 342. The Early American Republic.3 Credits.

This course considers American history from 1787 to 1848. Emphasis is on the ratification of the Constitution, the administrations of Washington, Adams, Jefferson and Madison; the growth of political parties; and political action stemming from differing theoretical positions. The course also examines culture and society in "the era of good feeling" and the Jacksonian period, and considers the changing position of the average American citizen.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year, All

HS 344. Civil War and Reconstruction.3 Credits.

The economic, social and political history of the United States in the mid-19th century is examined with emphasis upon the Civil War. Also explored are long-range and immediate causes for Southern secession, the military, naval and diplomatic conflict; domestic developments North and South, 1861-65; postwar problems and the history of Reconstruction, 1865-77.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 345. The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era.3 Credits.

This in-depth study of the major developments that influenced the emergence of modern America includes industrial and naval expansion; social, political and religious movements; and the creation of an American empire. The course also considers the impetus to reform that characterized the first two decades of the 20th century.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every Third Year

HS 346. The United States from WW I to WW II.3 Credits.

American politics, culture and society during the Great War are examined, as are the prosperous '20s, the Great Depression and the Second World War. Increasing American involvement in world affairs is considered. Differing historical interpretations of the period are studied.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 348. The American West to 1900.3 Credits.

This course examines the history of European-American occupation and settlement of the Trans-Mississippi West from the first European contact with Native Americans to the establishment of American statehood. The interaction of diverse cultures including Native Americans, Hispanics and Asians is explored.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 349. American Maritime History.3 Credits.

This course examines America's historic activities on the world's oceans, and on the bays, rivers and Great Lakes that are within its national boundaries. Students consider the economic, cultural, political and naval uses of these bodies of water from the 16th century to the present. Within this broad framework, this course considers how Americans used marine and freshwater environments to conduct trade, build communities, engage in war and diplomacy, use nature's bounty and participate in recreational activities. These themes illuminate the value Americans placed on maritime affairs, and provide insight into the American mariner's world, the American maritime community alongshore and the rippling effects of maritime activity throughout wider American society.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, All

HS 351. The New South.3 Credits.

This course considers the social, economic and political history of the American South from 1865 to the present. The emergence of a region displaying unique characteristics while simultaneously mirroring attitudes and actions of the nation as a whole is examined. The role and impact of literature, music, religion and sports on Dixie are considered; the civil rights movement and the development of the 'Sun Belt' also are covered. The course includes readings, discussion and a course project utilizing academic technology for historical research and presentation.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 361. African History to 1850.3 Credits.

This course provides an overview of the history of sub-Saharan Africa during the precolonial period, and entails a close inquiry into the major theoretical issues and conceptual questions involved in the study of African history. Classroom study is organized chronologically but focuses on several major themes: the relationship between Africa's linkages to the world and local historical dynamics on the continent; changing political structures and popular agency within them; slavery and economic transformations; gender and social change; shifting constructions of race, ethnicity, and identity; and the stakes of conceptualizing African history in the present. Particular attention is paid to a number of case studies from across the sub-Saharan African continent. Students draw upon a range of materials including secondary historical literature, primary sources and visual arts.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

HS 362. African History Since 1850.3 Credits.

Students explore the onset of colonialism in the mid-19th century; the process of colonization and the dynamics of colonialism; the roots of national liberation movements throughout the continent, and the complex and contingent process of decolonization. In considering the early postcolonial period, students investigate the economic, social and cultural landscapes of a variety of newly independent countries. They then trace the trajectories of postcolonial states through the later years of the 20th century. Finally, students conclude by reflecting upon the contemporary relevance of this history.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

HS 371. Women in the Caribbean from the Indigenous Era to Emancipation.3 Credits.

In this course, students learn that the past and history are different when viewed from women's perspectives and experiences. This course explores the experiences of women in the Caribbean from the indigenous populations to the end of slavery. Women's lives are explored in the context of larger Caribbean historical events and themes, including: the organization of indigenous societies, European conquest and settlement, the Atlantic slave trade, the slave and sugar plantation, black resistance, abolition and emancipation. Participants also explore experiences and perspectives peculiar to women, distinguishing their histories from men's histories. The class traces larger patterns and identifies shared experiences, but also pays close attention to factors that divided and diversified women's lives.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

HS 372. Women in the Caribbean since Emancipation.3 Credits.

Using discussion and reading, this course explores women "making" Caribbean history as they transitioned from slave to free societies and from colonial to independent states throughout the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Through critical analysis of women's memoirs, diaries, oral histories and visual materials, students investigate, speculate, debate and narrate women's experiences, contributions, ideas about and observations of the often tumultuous political, social, economic and cultural transformations across the Caribbean since the ending of slavery.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

HS 376. Pirates of the Caribbean.3 Credits.

Critically examining films, historical texts and works of fiction, this class explores the political, social and cultural history of piracy in the Atlantic world. Beginning with the rise of Iberian Empires in Africa and the Americas in the 16th and 17th centuries, students examine the role and importance of privateers in empire building and the struggle for global economic power among European nations. Shifting toward the Golden Age of Piracy in the 18th century, when privateers no longer enjoyed legal status as mercenaries, but were seen as outlaws, we explore merchants and their colonial allies' violent campaigns to eradicate piracy. We also investigate the inner, private worlds of piracy and probe the enduring fascination with piracy in popular culture, and the myths generated about pirates and their worlds.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

HS 377. Kinship, Culture and Slavery: Creating an African Diaspora in the Americas.3 Credits.

Students investigate the transatlantic slave trade as the primary mode by which Africans arrived in the Americas from the 15th to the 19th centuries. This class explores ideas and cultural traditions Africans brought with them to the New World, which provided a framework through which they interpreted, understood and re-created their lives in a new environment. The goal is to uncover how the African past shaped and defined Africans as they were transported across the Atlantic. Using an interdisciplinary approach, participants examine continuities and transformations of African structures and cosmology in the Diaspora.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

HS 380. Historic Preservation.3 Credits.

This introductory course in the interdisciplinary field of historic preservation aims to equip students with fundamental insight on how to handle and curate architecture, cultural landscapes and other forms of material culture in light of the principal methods, theories and philosophies (historic, social, cultural, technological and economic) that inform historic preservation practice. In sum, the course instructs students in the primary language, issues and research skills of historic preservation.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level history course.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

HS 389. History Elective.3 Credits.

HS 391. Colonizing the Body.4 Credits.

This course takes an in-depth look at the ways in which empire and imperial policies reshaped and reformulated the body of the colonized subject, setting up social categories of difference that corresponded neatly to European imperial notions of biological difference. Using India as a case study, it examines how Indian bodies were "scientifically" classified, categorized and redefined to underscore and perpetuate European political dominance. The course highlights imperial policies that buttressed certain privileged notions of racial, gendered, economic/occupational and anatomical difference.

Offered: Every year, Fall

HS 394. Doctors, Disease, and Death in the Western World.4 Credits.

In this course, students learn about the complex and varied history of health, healing, disease and death in the Western world from the time of the ancient Egyptians to modern day. This course is thematic in its focus. Students study various aspects of the history of medicine and through that study come to a better understanding of the biological, social, intellectual, cultural and institutional contexts in which the process of living and dying has been constructed in the Western experience.

Offered: Every year, Spring

HS 399. Independent Study in History.3 Credits.

Individual study of special area including internships. By agreement of the student and with prior permission of the department chairperson, the student may undertake directed readings with discussion, examination and reports as arranged by the instructor in an area of the student's interest not normally offered through scheduled courses. Available to history majors or other equally qualified students.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 400. Special Topics in History.3 Credits.

This course includes readings and discussion of historical topics of special interest to students enrolled in the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 300-level history course.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 408. Seminars in History.3 Credits.

Seminars are taught by members of the department in areas of their special competence. Topics are selected in consultation with juniors in the major. Emphasis is on organization and presentation of research. Open to second-semester juniors and seniors in the major and to other qualified upperclassmen by permission of department and instructor.

Prerequisites: Take HS 303.
Offered: Every year, All

HS 409. Honors Essay in History.3 Credits.

Honors projects are available to second-semester seniors who have taken HS 408 and have been admitted to candidacy for honors in history by the department.

Prerequisites: Take HS 408.
Offered: As needed, All

HS 499. Independent Study in History.3 Credits.

Individual study of special area including internships. By agreement of the student and with prior permission of the department chairperson, the student may undertake directed readings with discussion, examination and reports as arranged by the instructor in an area of the student's interest not normally offered through scheduled courses. Available to history majors or other equally qualified students.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 500. Special Topics in History.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed

HS 501. Special Topics.4 Credits.

Offered: As needed

HS 524. Approaches to World History.4 Credits.

This course examines various approaches to, and interpretations of, world history. The course has a topical format, with the specific focus shifting depending on contemporary global issues, recent interpretive innovations in the field and the interests of the instructor and the students. A specific goal of the class is to offer future teachers approaches to modern world history that will aid them in lesson planning and development. More generally, the goals of this class include the improvement of written and oral communication skills and the development of critical thinking skills through the examination of primary and secondary sources and the construction of interpretative arguments.

Offered: Every year, All

HS 525. History of the Atlantic World From the 15th to 19th Century.4 Credits.

This course explores the world made by contact, exchanges and clashes between European, Africans and Americans between the early 1400s to the late 1800s. The key assertion underpinning this course is that, despite social and cultural distinctiveness, Europe, Africa and America were interconnected, and are best understood as a "regional system" where each part is most intelligible by investigating its relationship to the whole. Using a thematic and chronological approach, this course explores critical themes that not only link these sub-regions but also give them distinctive historical character. Global trade networks, migration and settlement, colonization and imperialism, cultural and epidemiological transmission, race and gender relations and demographic reconfigurations are among the topics investigated in this course.

Offered: Every other year, All

HS 526. Approaches to U.S. History.4 Credits.

This course examines various approaches to, and interpretations of, U.S. history. The course focuses on a specific topic in American history and varies according to contemporary global issues, recent historiographical shifts, methodological innovations and/or the interests of the instructor and the students. One goal of this class is to offer future and present primary, middle and secondary schoolteachers approaches to U.S. history that may aid them in content and lesson planning. This course also uses typical historical methods, including the examination of primary and secondary sources and the construction of interpretative arguments, to develop written and oral communication skills as well as critical thinking.

Offered: Every year, Spring

HS 527. Approaches to Modern European History.4 Credits.

This course examines modern European history from a variety of standpoints. The course has a topical format--the specific focus shifts depending on contemporary issues and events, recent interpretive innovations in European history and the interests of the instructor and the students. In addition to deepening their knowledge of recent European history, the course also aids future teachers in developing rigorous and historically rich lessons for their students.

Offered: Every year, Fall

HS 563. Dynamics of American Social Structure.3 Credits.

This course considers continuity and change in values/beliefs and group structure as documented in the life of one American community. The relation between life chances and the lifestyle of minority groups at different periods and the responses of the dominant group are analyzed; the social, economic and political factors that shape the opportunity structure and the struggle for equality also are considered.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 564. Topics in East Asian History.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to Chinese and Japanese civilizations from the dawn of history to the end of the 20th century. The course stresses the artistic, cultural and intellectual traditions that evolved in East Asia.

Offered: As needed

HS 565. Topics in Geography for the 21st Century (GP 565).3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the general structure and methodology of geographic study in a cultural setting. The interaction among environments, populations, ways of life and locations are studied in a coherent, organized way. The distribution of people, food, energy and resources are analyzed, and there is an assessment of how to evaluate environmental potential, to deal with other peoples, to maximize available opportunities, and to determine which course of action to follow for progress and growth.

Offered: As needed

HS 566. Chinese Civilization.3 Credits.

In this introduction to Chinese civilization from the dawn of Chinese history until the end of the dynastic cycle in 1911, students are first introduced to the geography of China. Next, they learn about the evolution of the Chinese written language. Following this, the class considers the three ways of thought-Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism-which provided the ideological "glue" that held traditional Chinese society together. Last, students explore the worlds of Chinese literature, art and architecture.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 567. Popular Culture in American History.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed, All

HS 599. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed, All

Irish Studies (IRST)

IRST 101. Introduction to Irish Studies.3 Credits.

This course provides an introduction to Irish history and culture from the pre-Celt period to the present day. While the core approach is historical, students are introduced to Irish language, literature, filmography, landscape, music, politics, sports, poetry, theater, law and more. Students also look at the various methodological approaches for understanding Ireland, past and present. The course is led by Professor Christine Kinealy, but includes sessions with other lecturers involved in teaching Irish Studies at Quinnipiac University and partner institutions. Requires sophomore standing.

Prerequisites: Take FYS 101 or QU 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

IRST 300. Special Topics in Irish History.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed

IRST 301. Irish Studies Capstone.3 Credits.

This research capstone is undertaken in the final year of study. It is intended to bring reflection and focus to the Irish Studies minor by allowing the student to undertake a major piece of independent research based on the skills, experiences and knowledge acquired during their course of study. The student identifies a research topic and creates a research question that is appropriate to the area being studied. With the guidance of her/his supervisor and the appropriate librarian, the student creates a reading list and a time-table for completion. Students are encouraged to utilize the rich body of Irish resources available at Quinnipiac University. The semester-long project culminates in a 5,000- to 7,000-word essay (or with prior agreement, presentation, performance or other appropriate product) that demonstrates evidence of original research and critical thinking.

Prerequisites: Take IRST 101.
Offered: As needed

Japanese (JP)

JP 101. Elementary Japanese I.3 Credits.

This introduction to Japanese as a spoken and written language includes intensive drills in the basic structures of the language. Elementary reading materials are used for vocabulary building, analytical exercises and discussion. Students learn about Japanese culture, customs and business practices. Basic Japanese scripts are introduced concurrently with other skills.

Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

JP 102. Elementary Japanese II.3 Credits.

This course is a continuation of JP 101.

Prerequisites: Take JP 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele

JP 199. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed, All

JP 200. Introduction to Japanese Culture.3 Credits.

This course provides students with an overview of the Japanese culture, including the history, arts, tradition, beliefs, customs, behaviors, society, food and other topics. Upon successful completion of the course, students possess a better understanding of Japan's culture and its people. Students expand their horizons with their new knowledge to understand a different culture and viewpoints. The course is conducted in English and does not require prior knowledge of Japanese.

Prerequisites: Take EN 101;
Offered: As needed

JP 299. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed, All

JP 399. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed, All

JP 499. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed, All

Philosophy (PL)

PL 101. Introduction to Philosophy.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to a number of central questions in philosophy through critical exploration of ideas from selected great philosophers. It engages students in the close study of several fundamental issues that have arisen in the course of the development of the philosophical tradition--such as free will, our knowledge of the "external" world, and the meaning and value of truth and justice--giving students the basic tools for further work in philosophy.

Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring
UC: Humanities

PL 101H. Honors Introduction to Philosophy.3 Credits.

This course offers students the opportunity to examine their own values and beliefs through critical exploration of ideas from selected great philosophers, western and non-western, on such themes as the nature of reality, the self, knowledge, the good, spirituality and the ultimate. Attention is given to the historical context of the persons and ideas studied and to their impact on human thought and development.

Offered: Every year, All
UC: Humanities

PL 202. Logical Reasoning.3 Credits.

This course teaches students to recognize and evaluate logical patterns that recur in all language intended to persuade by reason. Students learn proof techniques for logical pattern evaluation, techniques to recognize and evaluate fallacies, and ways of understanding logical patterns in longer, extended passages. The goal of the course is to improve students' natural ability to think clearly and critically by learning to apply logic to arguments in public, academic and private life.

Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Humanities

PL 217. Contemporary Social and Political Philosophy (PO 217).3 Credits.

This course introduces students to major contemporary debates about the nature of membership in a national community and in a global community. Potential topics include the relationship between an individual and a state, the nature of political authority, the problem of distributive justice, the nature of universal human rights, the ethics of global development, immigration, the problem of environmental justice, postcolonialism, the politics of identity, philosophy of race, and the morality of warfare.

Prerequisites: Take FYS 101 PL 101 or PO 215.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 220. Ethics and Human Values.3 Credits.

This course explores the meanings of such normative distinctions as good/bad, right/wrong and good/evil. Students critically examine theories of morality such as egoism, utilitarianism, deontological ethics, divine command theory, natural law theory, sentimentalism and virtue ethics, as well as a challenge to all ethical theorizing: the case for moral relativism. Students focus on the practical implications of theory: understandings are brought to bear on various real-life ethical issues such as war, poverty, racism, abortion and substance abuse.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring and Summer
UC: Humanities

PL 220H. Honors Ethics and Human Values.3 Credits.

Various approaches in, and challenges to, ethics are explored and brought to bear on contemporary personal, professional and societal moral issues. Students undertake Service Learning projects and reflect upon the experience in relation to ideas encountered in course readings and discussions.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: As needed
UC: Humanities

PL 222. Bioethics.3 Credits.

Students analyze complex ethical issues in contemporary bioethics using relevant technical vocabulary and methods from philosophy, in partnership with information from the contemporary biosciences and the health care professions. Ethical theories covered include deontology, utilitarianism, virtue-based approaches to ethics, Virginia Held's ethics of care and Theddeus Metz's reconstruction of an African moral theory. Ethical issues addressed may include: stem cell research, human subjects research, human enhancement, reproductive medicine, euthanasia, advance directives and end-of-life care, resource allocation, organ transplantation, the right to health care and global health.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall

PL 234. Philosophies of Health, Healing and Medicine.3 Credits.

Students examine the concept of "health" and the assumptions, values and consequences involved in some of the more important ways of defining, preserving and restoring it. This leads to explorations of some of the significant understandings of "medicine" in relation to healing and to health. Among the understandings considered are: the Western "scientific" model; ancient models that are seen as offering provocative alternatives--Ayurvedic, Chinese, aboriginal; more recent alternatives developed within the West--Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Reiki, etc.; and faith-based approaches--Christian science, "miracle cures," etc. Although focused on health, healing and medicine, this course ultimately deals with the nature of the good society and welcomes all who are concerned with this perennial question.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 235. Philosophy of Science.3 Credits.

Students consider the history and nature of, and assumptions and values involved in, the scientific method; the logic of scientific explanation and theory construction; philosophical and ethical problems in selected natural, social and human sciences.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 236. Philosophy of Language.3 Credits.

This course focuses on the attempt to understand the nature of language and its relationship with speakers, their thoughts and the world. Students explore such questions as: What is language? How do we understand one another? Can we think without language? What is the connection between words and the objects to which they refer? What is meaning? What determines the truth and falsehood of our statements? Do we have innate linguistic abilities or do we learn to speak by observing the behavior of other speakers? Various philosophical theories about language are attempts to answer such questions. These are discussed, along with their far-reaching consequences for other areas of philosophy.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

PL 237. Philosophy of Mind.3 Credits.

Are minds physical or non-physical? Is free will real or an illusion? Is consciousness computational? Can we build artificial minds? How can we explain phenomena such as emotions, delusions and pain? What are we, and where is the boundary between ourselves and our environment? In this course, students explore these and other issues in the contemporary philosophy of mind, focusing on questions that emerge at the intersection of philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, neuroscience and artificial intelligence.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 238. Philosophy of Technology and Social Transformation.3 Credits.

What is technology? How do science and technology relate to human values? What role should technology play in our everyday lives? Do technological developments result in greater freedom? How should technology shape our cities and the natural environment, now and in the future? Students in this course critically examine these and other related issues, using a range of philosophical texts, science fiction and film.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Fall
UC: Humanities

PL 240. Philosophy of Sport (SPS 240).3 Credits.

This course examines the notion that humans are "homo ludens" or beings who play from two perspectives. In the first part of the course, students look at such questions as: what is the nature or essence of sports? And how do we distinguish or define sports as distinct from other kinds of activities? In the second part of the course, students examine the relationship between sports and ethics, with a focus on topics such as what is fair play, whether athletic enhancement is cheating, what is gender equity within sports in society, and how do collegiate sports compare with professional sports.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

PL 250. Philosophy of Art.3 Credits.

What is beauty? What does it mean to experience something--perhaps art or nature--aesthetically? What is art? What is the nature of artistic inspiration? What is--or what should be--the purpose of art? How does one determine the value of art? Is some art worthless? What is the relationship between art and truth? Should artistic expression ever be censored? How have racism, sexism and consumerism impacted the art world? These are some of the questions to be discussed as we consider aesthetic experience and artistic expression--in the visual arts, but also in music, dance, film, drama and other forms.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

PL 265. Living Religions of the World.3 Credits.

Students explore the phenomenon of religion, the idea of a god, the holy or the divine, and the main religions and related questions of today. The course focuses on aboriginal religion (Native American), Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. With prior instructor approval, students also may consider other past or contemporary religions, including atheism. Visits to two traditions other than your own and presentations by practicing members of the religions considered are included.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Humanities

PL 266. Diverse Global Philosophies.3 Credits.

In this course, students explore global traditions in philosophy developed by people from diverse cultures, beyond Europe and the United States. Participants devote particular attention to insights and questions raised with regard to possible relationships or contrasts between diverse global philosophies and our existing assumptions, beliefs and values. Potential topics and course materials may include both classical and contemporary sources from Australia, Africa, the Caribbean, China, India, Japan, the Muslim world, the Pacific Islands and Latin America. Owing to the breadth of the field, the focus of the course shifts, reflecting the interests and work of the instructor in any particular semester.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Fall
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

PL 267. Philosophy of Religion.3 Credits.

Religious language, religious experience and religious institutions make up a significant part of life in both traditional and modern cultures. This course analyzes the concepts and terms that are used in religious discourse, including God, holiness, redemption, idolatry, creation, eternal life and sacrifice, among others. Such analysis leads to questions regarding religious statements such as "God exists," "The cow is holy," and "If you fast, you will be redeemed" and their relationship with ordinary, everyday experience, as well as with science and with morality. Most important is the fundamental philosophical question "what is religion?"; answering it means moving beyond philosophy to anthropology, sociology, and of course psychology.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Humanities

PL 299. Independent Study in Philosophy.1-3 Credits.

Tutorial study or independent projects in selected areas of philosophy are completed under the direction of a faculty member. This course may not be used as a substitute for required courses in the major or minor. 1, 2 or 3 credits (must be agreed on in advance by the student and faculty member, and approved by the department chairperson).

Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PL 312. Philosophy of War and Peace (PO 312).3 Credits.

This course draws on what philosophers, legal scholars and political scientists have written about the nature, limits and morality of warfare. Students study the general frameworks for evaluating warfare in the theories of realism, pacifism and just war, and then turn to the evaluation of historical case studies concerning when it is just to initiate war, how war is to be conducted justly once it is initiated, and the obligations of combatants following war. Readings include both historical authors, such as Thucydides and Thomas Aquinas, and contemporary theorists, such as Michael Walzer and Jeff McMahan.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or one course from subject PL from level 200 or 300; or PO 211 or PO 215.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 320. Thought and Work of Albert Schweitzer (SL:Service Learning).3 Credits.

Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) made significant, often controversial contributions in several areas: music, philosophy, religion, medical care, service to human need, animal rights and ecological awareness. In 1952 Schweitzer was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his many decades of humanitarian work at his "jungle hospital" in West Africa. In his 80s, he became one of the most active voices in the struggle against the testing of nuclear weapons. Because Schweitzer considered his philosophy to be primarily one of action and service ("My life is my argument") Service Learning is an important component of the course. Quinnipiac's Albert Schweitzer Institute offers students many kinds of projects and activities reflecting Schweitzer's many areas of involvement. In this course, students critically explore Schweitzer's life, thought and work and their application to some of the moral problems and cultural and political issues we face today.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or Take one course from subject PL from level 200 or 300; or PO 211; or PO 215.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 330. Philosophy and Gender (WS 330).3 Credits.

Students investigate the notions of sex and gender and the debate over social versus biological underpinnings of expressions of masculinity and femininity. The relevance of historical views on sex, gender and relations between the sexes to current patterns and developments are considered. Issues facing men and women, as well as policies and reforms designed to address them are examined. Participants also consider the intersection between sex/gender and race, ethnicity, class and sexual orientation. Finally, the impact of gendered perspectives on contemporary philosophy, especially epistemology, ethics and social and political philosophy, is considered.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take one course from subject PL from level 200 or 300; or one course from subject WS.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 331. Philosophy of Humor.3 Credits.

Historically, many thinkers have viewed humor with scorn while others have not considered it a topic worthy of philosophical investigation. This course explores the nature and value of humor in our daily lives and examines humor critically as a virtue that can help us take ourselves less seriously and live better lives. Students analyze the major accounts of humor such as the superiority, incongruity and relief theories highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each theory. Adopting a critical philosophical lens, students also explore some important connections between humor and aesthetics, ethics and education.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

PL 332. Ancient Philosophy.3 Credits.

This course explores Greek and Roman philosophy through a focus on the concepts of erôs and philia or love and friendship. Students examine how Epic poetry, Greek tragedy, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, Stoicism and Lucretius reflected on the place of love and friendship in a life well-lived.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Humanities

PL 333. Modern Philosophy.3 Credits.

From the mid-16th through the 18th century, movements such as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the development of the modern sciences and increasing international trade and colonization introduced a new era of philosophy. Students explore human understanding, critically analyzing issues that potentially include the mind-body relationship, freedom and determinism, the nature of reality, the existence of God, perception, personhood and personal identity, the scope and limits of knowledge, and the value and limitations of our intellectual heritage from this period. Authors may include Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume and Kant.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300.
Offered: Every year, Spring
UC: Humanities

PL 334. Medieval Philosophy.3 Credits.

This course focuses on the history of medieval philosophy. Students discuss figures from the Christian, Islamic and Jewish traditions, including Augustine, Boethius, Ibn Sina, Al-Ghazali, Ibn Rushd, Maimonides, Aquinas, Scotus and Ockham. Particular attention is given to examine the manner in which these philosophers confronted and assimilated Aristotelian philosophy and how they anticipate certain dimensions of modern philosophy.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300.
Offered: Every Third Year, Spring
UC: Humanities

PL 335. Contemporary Philosophy.3 Credits.

Students explore dynamic philosophical movements in 19th- and 20th-century philosophy, and consider their contributions to humanism and diversity today. Potential topics may include Marxism, pragmatism, existentialism, phenomenology, logical positivism, feminism, poststructuralism, postcolonialism and philosophy of race. Potential material includes work by Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, James, Dewey, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ayer, Du Bois, Sartre, de Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty, Arendt, Foucault, Fanon, Biko, Derrida and Butler. Owing to the breadth of the field, the course focus each year reflects the interests and expertise of the instructor.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Humanities

PL 337. Human Rights: Theory and Practice (PO 337).3 Credits.

This course provides a rigorous and critical introduction to the foundation, structure and operation of the international human rights movement. It begins with leading conceptual and theoretical discussions, moving on to the institutions and functioning of the international human rights mechanisms, including nongovernmental and intergovernmental organizations. It covers cutting-edge human rights issues--gender and race discrimination, religion and state, national security and terrorism--placing them in the context of current political conflict and human rights discourse.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300; or PO 211; or PO 215.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

PL 338. Paradoxes.3 Credits.

Paradoxes have been with us since a Cretan said "all Cretans are liars," and Zeno showed us how the tortoise could beat Achilles. Originally considered a problem for logical--and mathematical--thought, paradoxes run the gamut from logic to mathematics, to language, to science, to art and to ethics. This course presents the definition(s) of paradox, reviews some of the principal paradoxes known to us and asks about their essence: what is paradoxical about paradoxes? It then moves on to examine paradoxes in ethics, thereby asking about the real, paradoxical world of human--psychological and social--behavior.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300.
Offered: Every Third Year, Fall
UC: Humanities

PL 340. Philosophy of Sex and Love.3 Credits.

This course presents a study of philosophical ideas on sex and love, the views of both Western and Eastern religions, and a critique of the moral issues concerning different types of sexual and love relationships. The significance of these viewpoints for living well is considered.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

PL 368. Philosophy of Death and Dying.3 Credits.

What does it mean to live and what does it mean to die? How do we distinguish life and death, living and dying? Is there a way to "die well" in the same way that we assume there is a way to "live well"? How do we justify our beliefs about issues of life and death? Is suicide ethically defensible? Do we have a duty to prevent death? Should we consider death an evil, and could it ever be a good? Should we care about our posthumous reputations? Students in this course explore these and related questions, drawing important insights from a range of relevant philosophical literature and personal narratives on death and dying.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101; or take 1 course from subject PL from level 200 or 300.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

PL 395. Critical Game Studies (GDD 395).3 Credits.

In this course, students address current research in game studies, ludology or play theory, to develop critical, conceptual and cultural understandings of narrative, meaning and identity in digital games. The course also addresses the design and development of serious and meaningful games and the aesthetic, social and technological implications of new emerging forms such as digital storytelling, interactive theater, virtual worlds and locative media.

Prerequisites: Take GDD 101 GDD 110 or PL 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring

PL 396. Philosophy Internship.1-3 Credits.

This internship aims to promote student growth and exploration in professional fields connected with the philosophy major. Students complete placements and associated activities either off campus with partner organizations, or on campus, working under the direction of a partner organization supervisor and/or a faculty member. Course can be taken for 1, 2 or 3 credits (credits, placements and associated activities must be agreed on in advance of the relevant semester by the student and faculty member). This course is graded on a pass/fail basis.

Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PL 399. Directed Research in Philosophy.3 Credits.

This is a more intensive directed research opportunity than that offered in PL 299. The course involves students in substantial independent research and writing projects in selected areas of philosophy, completed under the direction of a faculty member. This course may not be used as a substitute for required courses in the major or minor.

Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PL 400. Special Topics in Philosophy.3 Credits.

Prerequisites: Take PL 101 QU 101 or FYS 101.
Offered: As needed

PL 401. Senior Seminar.3 Credits.

This is a writing and research seminar for senior philosophy majors. Students engage with philosophical primary and secondary readings in group discussion. They prepare and present a senior thesis on a topic of their choice, with guidance by faculty from the department.

Prerequisites: Must be a PL Major with Senior Status.
Offered: Every year, Spring

PL 499. Independent Study Philosophy.3 Credits.

Individual study of a special area. By agreement with the instructor, the student may undertake directed reading with discussion, examination and reports as arranged by the instructor in an area of the student's interest not normally offered through scheduled courses.

Offered: As needed, All

Sports Studies (SPS)

SPS 101. Introduction to Sports Studies.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the social, historical, cultural, economic and political importance of sport. Students become familiar with the growing role and influence of sport in business, health sciences, and communications on the local, national, and global stage. This course also introduces students to the study of sport and the interdisciplinary research being done by scholars from various fields. This is a required course for the Sports Studies minor.

Offered: Every year, Fall

SPS 106. Electronic News Gathering for Sports (JRN 106).3 Credits.

Students are trained in the fundamentals of shooting news footage using digital cameras and editing news stories using a computer-based non-linear editing system. Assignments for SPS students are focused on sports.

Offered: Every year, All

SPS 200. Special Topics in Sports Studies.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed

SPS 201. Medical Aspects of Sport and Activity (AT 201).3 Credits.

This course is geared toward students who want to work in a sports-related field (i.e., coaches, journalists and managers). It provides an overview of a variety of sports medicine-related topics, including common sports injuries, an introduction to sports psychology and current events in sports medicine. Students cannot receive credit for both AT 201 and AT 214.

Prerequisites: Take 1 group; BIO 101-101L or BIO 105-105L or BIO 106-106L or CHE 101-101L or PHY 101-101L or BMS 110-110L or BMS 117-117L or BMS 118-118L or SCI 101-101L or SCI 102-102L or SCI 105-105L.
Offered: Every year, Fall

SPS 202. Sports Leadership.3 Credits.

This course offers an opportunity for students to explore leadership as a crucial component of success in a number of contexts, including sports and business. Some of the questions this course examines include: How are good leaders developed? What makes a leader successful? How do cultural factors influence leadership? Students explore various leadership theories and topics including (but not limited to) leadership development, effective coaching techniques, motivation, media effects and gender.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring

SPS 224. Sports Law (LE 224).3 Credits.

Sports law is a growing and evolving area of law, affecting all those who play, officiate or watch sports. Legal issues involve athletes, athletic competition, athletic teams and leagues, fans and sports in general, on the student, amateur and professional levels. Students study the legal concepts surrounding sports, and learn to apply them to the issues that arise.

Prerequisites: Take LE 101 and SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring

SPS 226. Baseball and Statistics (MA 226).3 Credits.

This course covers SABRmetrics: the study of standard statistical topics using data derived from baseball records, which, for many students, is more easily understood and more interesting than data from the business or science world. The course looks at both descriptive and inferential statistics along with probability. Descriptive statistics covers measures of central tendency, tables and graphs, the normal and binomial distributions. Inferential statistics explores sampling, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, chi-square testing, and regression and correlation analysis. Students must have a satisfactory score on the placement test and possess a basic knowledge of baseball.

Offered: Every year, All

SPS 240. Philosophy of Sport (PL 240).3 Credits.

This course looks at the philosophical study of sport. It considers the purpose, meaning and value of different sports, of various involvements in sport, and of different levels in sport. It also is concerned with what philosophers have to say about sport, and with what the study of sport can contribute to philosophy and to the human quest for the loving, the true, the good and the beautiful.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

SPS 280. The Art of the Podcast (JRN 280).3 Credits.

This hands-on course explores creative audio storytelling via the podcast. Students learn how to research, write, record, edit and self-publish creative nonfiction and fictional stories that are both original, and emulate some of the most popular podcasts on the market. Special emphasis is placed on audio gathering techniques, storytelling techniques and interviewing for live and recorded shows.

Offered: As needed, Spring

SPS 300. Special Topics in Sports Studies.3 Credits.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: As needed

SPS 307. Sociology of Sport (SO 307).3 Credits.

This course includes analysis of sport as a social and cultural institution and interrelations between sport and societal subsystems. Students explore selected issues of sociocultural aspects of sport and exercise, and analyze contemporary problems associated with sport, including race relations, the tradition and emergent role of females, leisure behaviors, aggression and violence, as well as political and economic concerns.

Prerequisites: Take SO 101 SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring

SPS 311. Sports Public Relations (STC 311).3 Credits.

This class is a comprehensive review of sports event planning and management. Students examine such topics as strategic planning, budgeting and time management.

Offered: Every year, Spring

SPS 312. Sports Management (MG 312).3 Credits.

This course offers an opportunity for students to gain information and understanding of the various practices and procedures associated with sport administration and management. Organizational structure, management decisions and challenges, as well as career opportunities at the professional, intercollegiate, interscholastic, youth and community sport levels are explored. The areas of sports tourism, sport management agencies and sport facility and event management are analyzed in terms of their impact on the management and business of sports.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring

SPS 325. Sports Economics (EC 325).3 Credits.

The primary focus of this course is professional sports; microeconomic foundations of sports economics, industrial organization of the sport industry, antitrust and regulation, financing sports stadiums, labor issues and the economics of college sports.

Prerequisites: Take EC 112.
Offered: As needed

SPS 352. History and Social Impact of Baseball.3 Credits.

This course covers the role of baseball both as an agent and as a reflector of social change in America from the mid-19th century to the present. While developments and activities on the field are not ignored, greater emphasis is placed on events surrounding the game. Topics include the racism of the 1880s; the transition from a pastoral pastime to a billion-dollar industry; the role of baseball in the assimilation of immigrants; the development of the Negro Leagues and the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League; the Jackie Robinson "experiment"; the growth of unionization in the sport and the most recent "Latino" wave of players. Students explore how each of these developments is embedded in and reflective of the larger culture.

Prerequisites: Take HS 131 or HS 132 or SPS 101;
Offered: Every year, Spring

SPS 361. Sports Reporting (JRN 361).3 Credits.

This course introduces students to coverage of sports for the news media and includes writing game stories and sports profiles.

Prerequisites: Take JRN 260 or JRN 263.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

SPS 362. The Story of Football (JRN 362).3 Credits.

This course traces the historical trajectory of American football and the coaches, players and media portrayals that transformed the game from a 19th-century collegiate test of manliness to what it is today: a spectator sport of immense appeal whose popularity endures despite more than a century of concerns over the game's sometimes lethal and debilitating violence.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall

SPS 399. Independent Study.3 Credits.

Independent Study. Requires approval of the sports studies director.

Offered: As needed

SPS 400. Special Topics in Sports Studies.3 Credits.

This course, offered as part of the Sports Studies minor, is offered as needed to explore current topics and trends in sports studies.

Offered: As needed

SPS 420. Sports, Media and Society (MSS 420).3 Credits.

This class examines the social, political, economic and historical significance of the intersection of sports, media and society. Some of the questions this course examines include: What role have sports played in shaping cultures throughout history? What is the relationship between sports and media? How do sports, through the media, influence U.S. culture today? What is the role of sports media professionals in U.S. culture? This course is specifically designed for students interested in sports journalism, production and/or promotion.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, Spring

SPS 488. Internship.3 Credits.

Students have the option to participate in an internship with a sports-related organization. The fieldwork is jointly supervised by the cooperating organization or corporation and the director of the sports studies minor. The internship adheres to standard Quinnipiac University regulations and procedures regarding internships. Requires approval of the sports studies director.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

SPS 490. Newsroom Clinical (JRN 590).3 Credits.

This graduate-level journalism course, open to select SPS seniors, focuses on advanced reporting for multimedia reports, broadcast news, news documentaries and magazine stories. Students produce daily, weekly and long-term stories in their area of expertise for the journalism department's tablet application, among other platforms. While graduate students meet twice a week, undergraduate students would only be required to meet one night a week. Requires senior status and approval of sports studies director.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

SPS 498. Student Media Independent Study.3 Credits.

This course is designed for SPS minors working for student media groups. Every two weeks, students submit their best work (article, package, game broadcast, etc.) and receive feedback. This independent study is an experiential learning opportunity that includes elements of both an internship, with hands-on experience and supervision, plus a skills class in which students receive feedback on their work. At the end of the semester, students submit their final portfolio as well as a cover letter and resume. Requires approval of the sports studies director.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

SPS 499. Independent Study.3 Credits.

This course is designed for SPS minors who wish to complete an individual research or professional project supervised by a faculty member affiliated with the sports studies minor. The project demonstrates a sophisticated understanding and critical analysis of a sports-related topic. Students present the findings of their research in a 15-18 page essay due at the end of the semester. Requires approval of the sports studies director.

Prerequisites: Take SPS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

Women Studies (WS)

WS 100. Special Topics.1 Credit.

Offered: As needed

WS 101. Introduction to Women's and Gender Studies.3 Credits.

This team-taught interdisciplinary course uses lively discussion and compelling readings to consider women's studies in its broad outlines. The participants discuss sexuality, economic and political power, the female body, images of beauty, psychology of gender and the development of feminism through course materials that include novels, social science research, poetry, historical writings and political manifestos. . Please be advised that this course may cover topics which students may find difficult, such as eating disorders, sexual assault and harassment.

Offered: Every year
UC: Breadth Elective, University Curriculum Ele, Intercultural Understand

WS 200. Special Topics in Women's Studies.3 Credits.

Offered: As needed

WS 210. Human Sexuality (PS 210).3 Credits.

This course focuses on human sexuality, including the physiological, psychological and social aspects of sexuality. Students are encouraged to consider diverse perspectives, e.g., in sexual orientation, experiences, beliefs and behaviors. Additional course topics include: domestic violence, abuse, sexual assault and harassment.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101 or WS 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring
UC: University Curriculum Ele, Intercultural Understand

WS 211. Cross Cultural Perspectives on Gender, Sex and Sexuality (AN 210).3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the social and cultural constructions of gender, sex and sexuality around the world. Students discover the way anthropologists approach these topics. They explore the constructions as they relate to notions of biology, family, households, work, migration, inequality/inequity, economics and class status, violence, and race and ethnicity. Discussions focus on what gender, sex and sexuality are, what they mean and how they theoretically and practically matter as categories.

Prerequisites: Take 6 credits; From Subjects AN SO or WS.
Offered: Every year, Fall

WS 219. Women in Political Thought (PO 219).3 Credits.

Students explore different approaches to explain the status of women. Theoretical perspectives that students consider may include: liberal feminism, radical feminism, Marxist/socialist feminism, feminism of care, conservative feminism and global feminism, among others. Students critically evaluate political concepts such as freedom, equality, rights and oppression, as well as learn about how different thinkers have conceptualized gender, politics, power and the role of the state. The course requires careful reading, intensive class discussion and multiple writing assignments.

Prerequisites: Take PO 101 or PO 131 or PL 101 or PS 101 or SO 101 or WS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring
UC: Social Sciences

WS 232. Women in the Criminal Justice System (CJ/SO 232).3 Credits.

This course examines the changing patterns of women's criminality, the experiences of women who are processed as crime victims, and the evolution of women's role in law, law enforcement and corrections.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Social Sciences

WS 235. Literature by Women (EN 235).3 Credits.

Virginia Woolf wrote that, for most of history, "Anonymous" was a woman. The last two centuries have energetically recovered the writings of women and shifted them into equal stature with literature written by men. With the question of what it means to extract a canon of literature defined by gender as its center, this course allows students to consider the ways in which women have contributed a language and form to the literary tradition. In particular, the course explores the process by which this literature, often written from the margins of experience, has shaped how we read today. Varied female authors are discussed, including Woolf, the Brontës, Emily Dickinson, Zora Neal Hurston, Sylvia Plath, Toni Morrison, Sandra Cisneros, Jamaica Kincaid, Leila Abouzeid, and Maxine Hong Kingston, among others.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Humanities, Intercultural Understand

WS 250. Gender and the Law (LE 250).3 Credits.

This course focuses on legal issues regarding gender, including the differential treatment of women and men in the legal system, and contemporary responses to gender issues in society.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

WS 255. Sociology of Families (SO 255).3 Credits.

In this introductory course, students study families in the U.S. Topics include the ways in which families have evolved over time and the effect of economic and social factors (such as race, class, and gender) on family life. Students learn about families in other cultures and current issues facing families.

Prerequisites: Take SO 101 or WS 101.
Offered: Every year, All
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

WS 262. Psychology of Women (PS 262).3 Credits.

In this course, students examine the complexity of gendered experiences from a psychological science perspective and explore the research regarding gender differences and gender relations. Many approaches are taken to understand gender, including biological, social, evolutionary, cognitive and cultural points of view. The goal is for students to appreciate the complexities of gender and to challenge one's assumptions and judgments about gender.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101 or WS 101.
Offered: Every year, Fall
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

WS 284. Gay and Lesbian Identities and Communities (SO/PS 284).3 Credits.

This course explores the social, socioeconomic, historical, psychological and political factors that have contributed to our understanding of what it means to be gay or lesbian today. Psychological research on gay and lesbian identity development, the social construction of identity, and the psychological, social and political benefits associated with "identifying" as gay or lesbian, are discussed. The course explores historical events that led to the development of gay and lesbian communities and the benefits of being involved in these communities. The course also explores how the gay and lesbian community has become more mainstream, in both positive and negative ways.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101 and sophomore standing.
Offered: As needed

WS 285. Protest and Change (SO285).3 Credits.

This course presents a systematic exploration of the causes and conditions of major social changes. Social movements such as the Civil Rights and Women's movements are studied in terms of their capacity to respond to and generate additional change.

Prerequisites: Take SO 101 or WS 101.
Offered: Every other year
UC: Social Sciences, Intercultural Understand

WS 300. Special Topics.3 Credits.

Prerequisite is determined by the offering department.

Offered: As needed

WS 301. Seminar in Women's Studies.3 Credits.

This seminar provides an opportunity for students to explore a subject (for example: 20th-century women poets, feminist issues from a global perspective) on an advanced level through interdisciplinary readings. Feminist theory is used to analyze materials that cover literature, psychology, history, political science, sociology and communications. Students are encouraged to take responsibility for making decisions about how the material is taught, and for working together to "own" the experience of scholarship. This course is required of Women's Studies minors. Junior or senior status is required.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

WS 304. Sociology of Gender (SO 304).3 Credits.

This course focuses on how society constructs notions/images of femininity and masculinity and how this influences our lives. Students look at cultural views of language, body and the media, as well as theoretical approaches to understanding the complexities of gender distinctions in our society.

Prerequisites: Take two courses from Women's Studies.
Offered: Every year

WS 308. U.S. Women's History (HS 308).3 Credits.

This course covers the experience of women in America before 1900. Women's work in the family and community is stressed. Individual research is required.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

WS 309. Women in America: 1920-Present (HS309).3 Credits.

This course covers the experience of women from the beginnings of the "jazz age" to the end of the century.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every year, All

WS 311. Diversity in the Media (MSS 311).3 Credits.

This course examines the role of media in the construction of social categories such as gender, race, class and sexual orientation, focusing primarily on the first two. Students learn about the media as one of a number of social institutions including religion, education and family, which influence our understanding of cultural difference. The course presents a variety of perspectives that address diversity in relation to both print and electronic media, emphasizing popular culture. Media diversity issues are analyzed in relation to ownership, representation, audience reception, and the media workforce. Junior standing required.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101 or MSS 101 or JRN 160 and MSS 220.
Offered: Every year, Spring

WS 315. Women Artists (AR 325).3 Credits.

This art history course focuses on the lives and artwork of women such as Hildegard von Bingen, Mary Cassatt, Frida Kahlo and Georgia O'Keefe.

Prerequisites: Take AR 102 AR 103 AR 104 AR 105 or WS 101.
Offered: As needed

WS 326. Witches and Werewolves in the Early Modern World (HS 326).3 Credits.

This course explores the general belief in witchcraft and other supernatural creatures in the larger context of religion and culture in the early modern world. Participants examine how belief in the supernatural led to a widespread fear and persecution of individuals deemed witches or other consorts of the devil. Using the groundbreaking work of historians, and the primary documents of the period, this course examines the origins and processes of the witch trials. Since approximately 75 percent of those in Europe accused of witchcraft were women, the course examines how gender, misogyny and scapegoating shaped the persecution and prosecution of the more vulnerable members of premodern society. More broadly, the class examines how Christianity both affirmed and condemned these beliefs and practices and how people used "superstition" to make sense of the world around them.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

WS 330. Philosophy and Gender (PL 330).3 Credits.

Students investigate the notions of sex and gender, along with the debate over social versus biological underpinnings of expressions of masculinity and femininity. The relevance of historical views on sex, gender and relations between the sexes to current patterns and developments are considered. Issues facing men and women, as well as policies and reforms designed to address them are examined. Participants also consider the intersection between sex/gender and race, ethnicity, class and sexual orientation. Finally, students consider the impact of gendered perspectives on contemporary philosophy, especially epistemology, ethics and social and political philosophy. Junior standing (or department approval) required.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

WS 335. Images of Women in Psychology and Literature (EN 335).3 Credits.

This seminar considers the ways in which psychology and literature depict the female experience. Using readings in both traditional and feminist psychological and literary theory, the course analyzes literary texts by and about women. Topics include: gender and genre, female identity formation and the minority experience.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101 or WS 101 and one 200-level English course.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

WS 338. American Literature by Women of Color (EN 338).3 Credits.

This course presents a study of the diverse literary traditions, themes and narrative strategies employed by non-traditional American women. The ways race, ethnicity and gender affect form, content, language and style of the literature are examined. Writers include: Silko, Erdrich, Morrison, Walker, Angelou, Giovanni, Tan, Kingston, Yamamoto, Cisneros and Viramontes.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level WS course.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

WS 345. Media Audiences (MSS 345).3 Credits.

This course examines popular, institutional and academic perspectives on media audiences in the U.S. and abroad. Central topics include how people choose and interpret media content, how marketers and media producers perceive audiences and how media researchers attempt to understand audiences. The course also considers popular assumptions about media effects on audiences and includes an in-depth analysis of fan cultures. Junior standing required.

Prerequisites: Take EN 102 or EN 103H and COM 120 or WS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Fall

WS 355. Latin American Women Film Directors (LAS 355).3 Credits.

The course explores the contributions of women filmmakers to cinema in Latin America and the Caribbean and traces the history of the medium in the region. From the golden age of Mexican cinema to the politically and socially engaged efforts of filmmakers in Argentina, Brazil and Cuba, films in Latin America historically have been a reflection of the socioeconomic forces at work in the region. The work of women filmmakers is also a reflection of those forces. In the course, students screen important works by women filmmakers and study how they fit (or don't fit) into the framework created by critics, filmmakers and the public.

Prerequisites: Take WS 101.
Offered: As needed

WS 370. Intimate Partner Violence Seminar (PS 370).3 Credits.

This seminar addresses the prevalence, causes and consequences of partner abuse. Etiological models of partner violence are examined from social perspectives (feminist, socioeconomic, anthropological and evolutionary theory), and psychological perspectives (personality disorders, perceived causes and justification of violence). The impact of violence on victims (physical and psychological consequences) is addressed.

Prerequisites: Take two 200-level courses from subjects SO WS PS or CJ.
Offered: As needed, Fall

WS 387. Women and Public Policy (PO 387).3 Credits.

Students examine the major public policy issues affecting gender relations in the United States today, including: reproductive rights and abortion, labor policy, welfare policy, sexual and domestic violence. Students discover the process by which issues of importance to gender equality have historically emerged on the public agenda, the ways in which policy debate is shaped once an issue becomes a public problem and the competing policy paradigms surrounding these controversial policy issues. Given the possible trauma associated with the topics of the class, students need to use their discretion in signing up to take this class.

Prerequisites: Take PO 131 or WS 101.
Offered: Every other year, Spring

WS 395. Feminist Theory and the Body.4 Credits.

This course introduces students to various feminist critiques of the body. Students examine how feminism has re-conceptualized the body, and become familiar with the body's linkages to race, class, sexuality and dis/ability. By studying feminist theory, students investigate how the body has been used as a site of cultural, political, social and biomedical meaning as well as a site of performance, commodification and systemic violence. Students gain an understanding of how bodies are influenced and expressed socially; and therefore, are able to conduct and apply scholarly feminist research that is inclusive of theories of the body. This course is for degree completion students only.

Offered: As needed

WS 398. Internship in Women's Studies.1-3 Credits.

Offered: As needed

WS 399. Independent Study.3-6 Credits.

Offered: As needed

WS 499. Independent Study.3-6 Credits.

Offered: As needed