Department of Psychology

Psychologists study phenomena such as behavior, emotions, cognitions and interactions from many perspectives. Given the diversity of ways of investigating psychological phenomena, students in both psychology and behavioral neuroscience study the discipline from several vantage points, including the biological, cognitive, social, developmental and scientist-practitioner perspectives. In this way, students come to appreciate the complexity of the field.

In both majors, the BS in Psychology and the BS in Behavioral Neuroscience, the department offers preparation for admission to graduate and professional schools and employment after graduation. Students are encouraged to engage with their learning in various ways, both in the classroom and in co-curricular activities, such as internships, independent study and/or by concentrating their studies in a particular area of psychology. They learn to design and conduct research, analyze data using statistical software and use academic search engines. Students learn the importance of first impressions and how to behave professionally. They also learn how to be self-disciplined; all seniors complete a substantial piece of scholarly work in which they demonstrate their understanding of the science of psychology or behavioral neuroscience and how these areas are connected with other areas of inquiry.

The mission of the Department of Psychology is to introduce students to the broad field of scientific psychology while offering them an education in the true liberal arts tradition.  The psychology faculty members are committed to helping students become more sophisticated readers of scientific texts, more effective writers and more articulate speakers. These skills are linked to the development of critical thinking, a primary goal of the faculty.  Courses require students to read primary research publications, to write in expository style and to speak their minds. Students engage in these activities as a way to learn about different kinds of research and about competing theories.  The psychology program is designed to produce independent thinkers and lifelong learners.

Psychology (PS)

PS 101. Introduction to Psychology.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the background and breadth of contemporary psychological science. Five perspectives on the study of psychology form the basis for topics within the course, these include the biological, cognitive, social, developmental and scientist-practitioner perspectives. The course emphasizes psychology's philosophical origins, its research methods, and the relationship of the discipline of psychology with other areas of inquiry. A minimum grade of C- is required in this course to advance to any 200-level PS course.

Offered: Every year, All

PS 101H. Honors Introduction to Psychology.3 Credits.

Students are introduced to the background and breadth of contemporary psychological science. Natural science, social science and applied science form the basis for topics within the course such as psychology's philosophical origins, its research methods, the study of learning, neuroscience, issues in mental illness, child development and the application of psychology to contemporary social issues. A minimum grade of C- is required in this course to advance to any 200-level PS course.

Offered: As needed

PS 199. Independent Study.1 Credit.

PS 200. Special Topics in Psychology.3 Credits.

Offered in response to special demands and conditions. See current announcements at time of registration (available on request at psychology department office).

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 206. Introduction to Statistics in Psychology.3 Credits.

This course covers statistical concepts and procedures as they apply to psychology. Students learn to perform statistical tests using both calculators and SPSS. Topics include: descriptive statistics, Z scores, t-tests, chi-square, correlation, and analysis of variance. For Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience majors only. Minimum grade of C- is required to pass.

Corequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C-; and MA 110 MA 118 MA 140 MA 141 MA 142 MA 151 or MA 170.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 210. Human Sexuality (WS 210).3 Credits.

This course focuses on human sexuality, including the physiological, psychological and social aspects of sexuality. Students are encouraged to consider diverse perspectives, e.g., in sexual orientation, experiences, beliefs and behaviors. Additional course topics include: domestic violence, abuse, sexual assault and harassment.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 232. The Concept of Personality and Its Development.3 Credits.

Personality is viewed from a variety of perspectives, including theories of its formation, social functioning and human evolution. Certain theories are examined, as are philosophical implications underlying diverse models of the nature of personality.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C-.
Offered: Every year, All

PS 233. Cognitive Psychology.3 Credits.

Cognition is studied from a multi-method perspective with an emphasis on information-processing. Topics include models of memory, memory distortion, perception, expertise, cognitive neuroscience, imagery, problem solving, language and cognitive development. The interrelationship between applied and basic research is emphasized.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 233H. Honors Cognitive Psychology.3 Credits.

Cognition is studied from an information-processing perspective. Topics include: models of memory, memory distortion, perception, expertise, cognitive neuroscience, imagery, problem solving, language and cognitive development.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 234. Adult Development and Aging (GT 234).3 Credits.

Facts, theory and current issues in adult development and aging are covered in this course, which focuses on physical, cognitive and psychosocial development as well as family and career patterns.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 236. Child and Adolescent Development.3 Credits.

Prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence are surveyed in terms of an individual's physical, cognitive and social/emotional development. Students learn about the major theories and research methods used by developmental psychologists. Results of research studies are used to think about real-world applications.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 236H. Honors Child and Adolescent Developmental Psychology.3 Credits.

Prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence are surveyed in terms of an individual's physical, cognitive and social/emotional development. Students learn about the major theories and research methods used by developmental psychologists. Results of research studies are used to think about real-world applications.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 242. School Psychology.3 Credits.

Theoretical and pragmatic concerns of the school psychologist are considered. Topics include child development, psychoeducational assessment, applied behavior analysis, special education legislation, and the role of the public schools as a social institution. Identification and treatments of various school-related exceptionalities such as learning and intellectual disabilities, speech and language disorders, autism, ADHD and giftedness are investigated.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C-.
Offered: As needed

PS 244. Psychology of Prejudice.3 Credits.

This course presents an analysis of intergroup discrimination and prejudice. The focus is on group and individual determinants of factors that produce this social phenomenon. Insights from disciplines of history, economics and sociology are included, as well as an overview of the successes and failures of the theories and programs to reduce prejudice.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 250. Parenting Science.3 Credits.

This course surveys research topics that pertain to effective parenting, such as parental discipline practices, and the effects of media on development. Research is drawn from fields such as developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, abnormal psychology and anthropology.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 251. Introduction to Conditioning and Learning.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the history, philosophical bases and contemporary issues in respondent and operant conditioning in particular and in learning in general. It surveys current applications of basic theory and research including behavior modification, and examines the social controversy generated by applications.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 252. Physiological Psychology.3 Credits.

This course is an introduction to the interactions between biological and psychological processing that are the basis for emotion, cognition and behavior. Topics include research methods, brain structure and function, neural plasticity, sleep, learning, memory, reproduction, drug action, sensation, perception and psychological disorders.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, All

PS 254. Psychology of Close Relationships.3 Credits.

Both familial and non-familial close relationships are examined. Topics such as love, friendship, living together, marriage, relationship maintenance and relationship dissolution are covered. Theories and research in each of these areas are read and discussed. The course aims to increase students' awareness of the issues and conflicts that affect close relationships.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 261. Social Psychology.3 Credits.

This course examines the effect of social forces on the individual, and the role of the situational context in human behavior. Topics include aggression, altruism, attribution, issues in social cognition, group behavior, attitude change and aspects of social psychology and law.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 261H. Honors Social Psychology.3 Credits.

This course examines the effect of social forces on the individual, and the role of the situational context in human behavior. Topics include aggression, altruism, attribution, issues in social cognition, group behavior, attitude change and aspects of social psychology and law.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 262. Psychology of Women (WS 262).3 Credits.

In this course, students examine the complexity of gendered experiences from a psychological science perspective and explore the research regarding gender differences and gender relations. Many approaches are taken to understand gender, including biological, social, evolutionary, cognitive and cultural points of view. The goal is for students to appreciate the complexities of gender and to challenge one's assumptions and judgments about gender.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, Fall

PS 265. Industrial-Organizational Psychology.3 Credits.

This course examines the application of psychological principles and practices to business, industrial and organizational settings. Covered are such issues as personnel selection, job analysis, training, accident prevention, morale, performance appraisal, worker motivation, leadership and organizational communication.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: Every year, All

PS 272. Abnormal Psychology.3 Credits.

Historical, philosophical and pragmatic conceptions of normality are explored as well as causes, description and classifications of abnormal behavior and "mental illness;" historical and contemporary approaches to understanding and treatment; and theories of psychopathology.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit
Offered: Every year, All

PS 272H. Honors Abnormal Psychology.3 Credits.

Honors course--Historical, philosophical and pragmatic conceptions of normality are explored as well as causes, description and classifications of abnormal behavior and "mental illness;" historical and contemporary approaches to understanding and treatment; and theories of psychopathology.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 283. Introduction to Forensic Psychology.3 Credits.

Students learn about both the theoretical and applied components to the field of forensic psychology. The theoretical aspect of the course addresses criminality from a psychological perspective by examining theories of aggression, for example. Applied sections of the course explore the intersection of psychology and the legal system as well as crime scene behavioral analysis and offender profiling.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 284. Gay and Lesbian Identities and Communities (SO/WS 284).3 Credits.

This course explores the social, socioeconomic, historical, psychological, and political factors that have contributed to our understanding of what it means to be gay or lesbian today. Psychological research on gay and lesbian identity development, the social construction of identity, and the psychological, social, and political benefits associated with "identifying" as gay or lesbian, are discussed. The course explores historical events that led to the development of gay and lesbian communities and the benefits of being involved in these communities. The course also explores how the gay and lesbian community has become more mainstream, in both positive and negative ways.

Prerequisites: Take SO 101.
Offered: As needed

PS 299. Independent Study in Psychology.1-6 Credits.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101; Minimum grade C- or transfer credit.
Offered: As needed

PS 300. Special Topics in Psychology.3 Credits.

Offered in response to special demands and conditions. See current announcements at time of registration (available on request at psychology department office).

Prerequisites: Take two courses from psychology.
Offered: As needed

PS 307. Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology.4 Credits.

This course provides an introduction to the tools, methods and findings of classic and contemporary experimental and non-experimental psychology. Topics include logical reasoning, statistical inference, research ethics, research design and APA style report writing. Must be taken with PS 307L taught by the same professor. For Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience majors. Minimum grade of C- is required to pass.

Prerequisites: Take PS 101 PS 206.
Corequisites: Take PS 307L.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 307L. Introduction to Methods Lab.0 Credits.

Lab to accompany PS 307.

Corequisites: Take PS 307.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 308. Advanced Research Methods in Psychology.4 Credits.

This course builds on the statistical analyses, experimental methods and nonexperimental methods learned in PS 206 and PS 307. Each section focuses on a different area of study in Behavioral Neuroscience. Students design, conduct and formally present a major piece of psychological research, including statistical analysis, on a topic in that research area. Must be taken with PS 308L taught by the same professor. For Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience majors only. Minimum grade of C- is required to pass.

Prerequisites: Take PS 307.
Corequisites: Take PS 308L.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 308L. Advanced Research Methods Lab.0 Credits.

Lab to accompany PS 308.

Corequisites: Take PS 308.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 309. History of Psychology.3 Credits.

This is a course for advanced psychology majors. It covers philosophies dating back to ancient Greece. Participants review the history of scientific thought and of brain science. They trace the emergence of the science of psychology and the development of different systems of thought or theoretical perspectives within psychology. Students compare and contrast psychological perspectives in terms of how they have both deepened and limited our understanding. This course is taken in the senior year.

Prerequisites: Take PS 307.
Offered: As needed

PS 310. History of Madness.3 Credits.

This course explores the history of mental illness and its treatment between 1750 and the early 1900s. The history includes a discussion of treatment without a clear scientific or medical understanding of "madness" or "lunacy." Differences and similarities in treatments in the U.S., England, Ireland and Scotland are discussed, along with discussion of the socioeconomic-political context, including the development of almshouses or workhouses. The impact of the changing legal landscape on development of asylums is explored. Students also explore the development of moral treatment by Quakers, and the influence of work by Freud around the turn of the 20th century.

Prerequisites: Take PS 272.
Offered: As needed

PS 311. Tests and Measurements in Psychology.3 Credits.

This course covers principles of test construction, standardization and validation; survey of commonly used measures of personality, psychopathology, aptitudes, interests and achievement, particular emphasis on the relationship between the testing movement and the social, political and economic context in which it is embedded.

Prerequisites: Take PS 206.
Offered: As needed

PS 325. Health Psychology.3 Credits.

The application and contribution of psychological research and practice to the promotion and maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of illness are explored. Topics covered include stress and illness, psychological aspects of pain, management of chronic and terminal illness, obesity, smoking and other addictive behaviors, sleep disturbances, personality factors in illness and patient-practitioner interaction.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level psychology course.
Offered: Every year, Fall

PS 333. Advanced Cognition.3 Credits.

Students learn how cognitive psychology has been applied both inside and outside of psychology to problems as varied as absentmindedness, learning disabilities and face recognition. Cognitive psychology has been applied to various contexts such as occupational therapy, education, athletics and law enforcement. Course goals are to deepen understanding of cognitive theories, broaden knowledge of cognitive methods and research, and sharpen awareness of the increasing impact of the field on everyday life.

Prerequisites: Take PS 233.
Offered: As needed

PS 336. Cognitive Development.3 Credits.

This seminar provides an in-depth examination of cognitive development from infancy through adolescence. Topics include the development of knowledge about physical objects, memory, language, numerical understanding and an understanding of the mind. For each topic, students discuss the results of various research studies with an emphasis on the methodologies used, various interpretations of the findings and practical applications of the work.

Prerequisites: Take PS 236.
Offered: As needed

PS 353. Research Methods in Behavioral Neuroscience.3 Credits.

This course provides a comprehensive view of biological and physiological psychology and the methods utilized in behavioral neuroscience research. Topics may include measurement and techniques of animal behavior, ethics and guidelines associated with neuroscience research, logic of experimental design, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, neurophysiology, gross anatomy and scientific presentation skills. This is a recommended course for behavioral neuroscience majors and gives students a background to succeed in research endeavors. A minimum grade of C- is required to pass this course.

Prerequisites: Take PS 252 PS 307.
Offered: As needed

PS 354. Sensation and Perception.3 Credits.

This course considers the sensory systems as gateways to the mind. Psychological mechanisms of vision, audition, taste, smell, pain and other senses are explored, as well as the psychophysics, anatomy and physiology of these sensory systems.

Prerequisites: Take PS 233 or PS 252.
Offered: Every year, Fall

PS 355. Advanced Psychology of Learning.4 Credits.

This course presents an advanced study of the history, philosophical bases and contemporary issues in respondent and operant conditioning in particular, and in learning in general; a survey of current applications of basic theory and research including behavior modification; and examination of the social controversy generated by such applications. Lab accompanies the course.

Prerequisites: Take one 200-level psychology course.
Offered: As needed

PS 355L. Psychology of Learning Lab.0 Credits.

Lab to accompany PS 355.

Offered: As needed

PS 356. Psychology of Language.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the scientific study of language. Topics include speech physiology, psychological processes underlying the production and comprehension of both spoken and written language, the psychological and biological milestones of language acquisition (both normal and special), theories of language evolution, cognitive neuroscience of language, and the relationship of language to other cognitive processes.

Prerequisites: Take PS 233 or PS 252.
Offered: As needed

PS 357. Drugs, Brain and Behavior.3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the effects and mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs. Drugs used in the treatment of psychological disorders as well as drugs of abuse are covered. In addition to describing basic principles of neuropharmacology, the course covers theories of tolerance, dependence and abuse in depth. Pharmacotherapy for substance abuse and major mental disorders is described from both a biological and clinical perspective. A minimum grade of C- in PS 252 is required to take this course.

Prerequisites: Take PS 252; Minimum grade C-.
Offered: Every year, Spring

PS 359. Psychology Elective.3 Credits.

PS 366. Advanced Personnel Psychology.3 Credits.

This course presents an in-depth exploration of the traditional ideas and innovations of industrial psychology. Topics include, but are not limited to: recruitment and selection of employees, development and implementation of performance appraisal systems, issues involved in training employees, employment law and labor-management relations.

Prerequisites: Take PS 265.
Offered: As needed

PS 367. Advanced Organizational Psychology.3 Credits.

The history and new developments within organizational psychology are examined closely. Topics include, but are not limited to: organizational theory, research and theories of leadership, leadership development, motivating employees, job attitudes, teamwork, work-family balance and workplace stress.

Prerequisites: Take PS 265.
Offered: As needed

PS 368. Occupational Health Psychology.3 Credits.

This course explores the history and development of research and practice in the field of occupational health psychology. Topics include, but are not limited to, stress theories and models, specific stressors and strains, safety, employee health and well-being, work schedules, the work/non-work interface and occupational health interventions.

Prerequisites: Take PS 265.
Offered: As needed

PS 370. Intimate Partner Violence Seminar (WS 370).3 Credits.

This seminar addresses the prevalence, causes and consequences of partner abuse. Etiological models of partner violence are examined from social perspectives (feminist, socioeconomic, anthropological and evolutionary theory), and psychological perspectives (personality disorders, perceived causes and justification of violence). The impact of violence on victims (physical and psychological consequences) is addressed. This course is cross-listed as WS 370.

Prerequisites: Take two courses; From Subjects PS SO CJ or WS.
Offered: As needed

PS 371. Clinical Psychology.3 Credits.

The principles and practices of clinical psychology are introduced. The course includes a review of legal-ethical issues and the training of clinical psychologists. The course focuses on methods of clinical assessment and the practice of psychotherapy, including extensive use of case studies.

Prerequisites: Take PS 272.
Offered: Every year, Spring

PS 372. Child Psychopathology.3 Credits.

This course provides students with an understanding of child and adolescent problems within the framework of developmental and child clinical psychology. Theoretical and methodological issues are addressed early in the course. Thereafter, the nature, etiology and treatment of a wide range of psychological disorders affecting children from infancy through adolescence is examined.

Prerequisites: Take PS 272.
Offered: As needed

PS 373. Positive Psychology.3 Credits.

This course reviews and evaluates recent developments in positive psychology. Historical foundations are discussed, including the work of William James and Abraham Maslow. Research on resilience, positive coping and post-traumatic growth are covered, as well as topics such as gratitude, forgiveness, compassion, happiness and mindful meditation.

Prerequisites: Take PS 272.
Offered: As needed

PS 382. Advanced Social Psychology.3 Credits.

Contemporary issues and topics in social psychology are examined. Content varies as the area develops and changes but has characteristically emphasized theories of attitude change, psychological effects of mass media, attribution theory, interpersonal attraction, helping behavior and psychological factors in contemporary social issues.

Prerequisites: Take PS 261 or PS 307.
Offered: As needed

PS 383. Psychology and the Law.3 Credits.

The interface between psychology and the law is studied. Topics include psychological studies of eyewitness testimony, the social sciences and jury selection, the "insanity defense," commitment procedures, legal and ethical issues in psychotherapy, and the psychology of institutionalization.

Prerequisites: Take two psychology courses.
Offered: As needed

PS 391. Applied Clinical Science Seminar (SL: Service Learning).3 Credits.

For psychology majors in the applied clinical science concentration only. Professional, theoretical, clinical and ethical issues related to each student's senior fieldwork experience represent the content of the course. Students are simultaneously registered in PS 393.

Prerequisites: Take PS 371.
Offered: Every year, Fall

PS 393. Fieldwork in Applied Clinical Science (SL:Service Learning).3 Credits.

For Psychology majors in the applied clinical science concentration only. Students are placed in a community service agency to gain supervised experience in applied clinical programs. Placements total a minimum of 120 hours during the semester, and may include youth counseling agencies, rehabilitation services, mental health clinics, research sites, centers for people with mental retardation, psychiatric hospitals, schools for special populations and others. Due to a commitment of services to clients or patients, particularly strict standards of attendance and responsibility are maintained. PS 393 is taken in conjunction with PS 391. All students in PS 393 must plan to take PS 394 in the spring semester. This course is graded pass/fail.

Prerequisites: Take PS 371.
Offered: Every year, Fall

PS 394. Fieldwork in Applied Clinical Science (SL: Service Learning).3 Credits.

For psychology majors in the applied clinical science concentration only. Students are placed in a community service agency to gain supervised experience in applied clinical programs. Placements total a minimum of 120 hours during the semester, may include youth counseling agencies, rehabilitation services, mental health clinics, research sites, centers for people with mental retardation, psychiatric hospitals, schools for special populations and others. Due to a service commitment to clients or patients, particularly strict standards of attendance and responsibility are maintained. This course is graded pass/fail.

Prerequisites: Take PS 391 PS 393.
Offered: Every year, Spring

PS 397. Fieldwork in Industrial/Organizational Psychology.3 Credits.

For psychology majors in the industrial-organizational concentration only. Students are placed in a corporation or consulting firm under the supervision of an industrial-organizational psychologist or HR manager. A minimum of 120 hours of work is required. Due to a commitment to professionalism, particularly strict standards of attendance and responsibility are maintained. This course is graded on a pass/fail basis.

Offered: As needed

PS 399. Independent Study in Psychology.1-6 Credits.

Pursuit in depth of a specific topic or area. Topics and expected outcome must be specified in advance, groups interested in the same topic may meet together.

Offered: As needed

PS 401. Integrative Capstone for Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience Majors.3 Credits.

This seminar is the capstone course for Psychology and Behavioral Neuroscience seniors only. It consists of extensive readings of original research, theory and history on a topic selected by the student under the guidance of the professor. A senior thesis, written according to departmental standards, is a central part of the requirement. As a capstone course, this course must be taken as a seminar during the academic year and cannot be taken as a tutorial. Most sections are offered in the spring. Senior standing required. This course counts as the university's Integrative Capstone requirement for PS and BNS majors.

Prerequisites: Take PS 308 or PS 353.
Offered: Every year, Fall and Spring

PS 409. Senior Seminar in Psychology.3 Credits.

This seminar is the capstone course for psychology seniors only. It consists of extensive readings of original research and theory on a topic selected by the student under the guidance of the professor. A senior thesis, written according to departmental standards, is a central part of the requirement. As a capstone course, this course must be taken as a seminar during the academic year and cannot be taken as a tutorial. Most sections are offered in the spring. Senior standing required.

Prerequisites: Take PS 308 or PS 353.
Offered: As needed

PS 499. Independent Study in Psychology.1-6 Credits.

Same as PS 399 but on the senior level. Topic and objective must be specified in advance. Students limited to a maximum of six hours of independent study per year, unless warranted by exceptional circumstances.

Prerequisites: Take PS 307 PS 308.
Offered: As needed, All

PS 500. History of Madness - Medical Capstone.3 Credits.

This course explores the history of mental illness and its treatment between 1750 and the early 1900s. The history portion includes a discussion of treatment without a clear scientific or medical understanding of "madness" or "lunacy." Students discuss differences and similarities in treatments in the U.S., England, Ireland and Scotland, and also look at the socioeconomic-political context, including the development of almshouses or workhouses. The impact of the changing legal landscape on development of asylums also is explored. Later, the development of moral treatment by Quakers, and the influence of work by Freud around the turn of the 20th century, is discussed. Medical students only.

Offered: As needed